Kumu Jairo Kealoha Cardona

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What is Hula?

Hula History - Past and Present


by Kumu Jairo Kealoha


FOR THOSE THINGS THAT ARE IN YOU AND ARE ALSO IN ME. WE ARE MIRRORS FOR ONE ANOTHER ... when we gather together in this world... when we share our life journey from the heart of our own experience... when we come together as conscious human beings with total reverence and respect; then everything we do is sacred... everything become sacred. Aloha Mai - I come with love. ~ Jairo Kealoha Cardona

What is Hula?
"Hula is the language of the heart and therefore the heartbeat of the Hawaiian people."  
~ David (Kawika) La'amea Kalakaua, King of Hawaii 1874-1891

Hula Dance
Kuhi no ka lima, hele noka maka.
Where the hands move, there let the eyes follow. A rule in Hula.

Hula is a sacred exquisite spiritual dance form accompanied by a (mele) chant or song. It was developed in the Hawaiian Islands by the Polynesians who originally settled there. The hula dance is characterized by flowing  pantomimic gestures, undulating hips, miming movements of the arms and hands, and usually accompanied by rhythmic drumbeats and chants. The ritual hula dance illustrates, dramatizes and complement the lyrics or comments on the mele. The chant (mele) filled with deep felt emotion  is accompanied by ipu (a gourd) and 'ili'ili (stones used as clappers). Listeners dance in a highly ritualized manner. The older, formal kind of hula is called kahiko, while the modern version is 'auana. There are also complex religious mele chants; when accompanied by dancing and drums, it is called mele hula pahu.

The art of Hula, the traditional Hawaiian music and dancing style was/is used to express praise and communicate the spirit of Hawaii... the spirit of Aloha and to preserve Hawaiian land, culture, values, art, history, genealogy and mythology.

Hula is the soul of Hawaii expressed in motion. No one knows its exact origins but Hawaiians agree that the first hula was performed by a god or goddess which makes the dance a sacred ritual.

Its origins are shrouded in legend and according to one of them, the sacred hula originated when the goddess of fire, Pele, commanded her younger sister, Laka to dance. According to that legend Laka, goddess of the hula, gave birth to the dance on the island of Molokai, at a very sacred place in Ka'ana. Laka's remains were secretly hidden on her death somewhere beneath the hill, Pu'u Nana. The birth of the hula is celebrated in a festival called Ka Hula Piko every May on Molokai. The island is praised in the saying '"Molokai Ka Hula Piko,"' which translates "Molokai, the center of the dance".

"On Molokai the story is that hula came to these islands a very long time ago from Tahiti, brought by a man named Laka, assumed to be related to the male god/hero Rata in the South Pacific.

On Kauai the story is that hula came to these islands a very long time ago from Tahiti, but one version says it was a woman named Laka who brought it, and another version says it was brought by a set of twins, male and female, both named Laka.

On the Big Island, the most popular story says that hula was invented right here by a human woman named Hopoe, who taught it to her goddess friend, Hi'iaka, who taught it to her elder sister, Pele. I like this one in particular, because it is a rare legend of a human teaching something to the gods." ~ Serge Kahili King - The Hula Experience

Another story tells of Hi'iaka, who danced to appease her fiery sister, the volcano goddess Pele. Here is the hula's myth on how it was started: Long ago Pele, the goddess of fire, told her little sister, Laka, to amuse her because she was very bored. Right away, Laka got up and moved gracefully, acting out silently events they both knew. Pele was delighted when Laka began relating victories of King Kamehameha. She showed winds circling, directed by the goddess Laama'oma'o. She described trees, flowers, waterfalls, and stars. She honored Kuula, the god of the sea, by swaying side to side to the rhythm of the ocean waves. Pele clapped. She was fascinated. The hula was born. Laka became the hula goddess. At first there were some rules. Only religious men and women could perform the first hulas because Hawaiian dancing was sacred. These men and women devoted themselves to Laka's hula. They only saw their kumus/instructors.

"The origins of hula are open to interpretation. Some believe it came from the ancient civilization of Mu, some claim it was homegrown, while others trace it to Tahiti or some other foreign land. For both ancient and modern Hawaiians, the hula is the essence of life itself. It links them with the universe and makes them one with all creation."  ~  The Soul of Hawaii by Tracey Lakainapali

"This is a very simplistic overview to show that not all Hawaiians agree on how the hula started." ~ Serge Kahilli King- The Hula experience

"E nana, e ho`olohe. E pa`a ka waha, e hana ka lima

Watch, listen. Keep the mouth closed, and the hands busy. One learns by listening and observing. Ask questions only after you've tried to figure out something yourself."

"Hula is not just a dance; hula it is a way of life to which many kumu (teachers) and haumana (students) dedicate their lives to the study of Hula. To be chosen as a student of hula is a great honor. Both the kumu, (teacher), and haumana (students) are highly respected and often make a lifelong commitment to the Hula."
- Amy Ku`uleialoha Stillman ~  Hula Halau Pomaika'ikeolahouoka'lani  

Because hula was a religious dance, the training of ancient hula dancers at the halau hula (hula school) was very strict. Haumana (students) followed elaborate rules of conduct (kapu) and had to obey their teacher (Kumu). For example, dancers could not cut their hair or nails, certain foods were forbidden, and no sex was allowed. A memorizer (hoopaa) assisted the Kumu with the chanting and the drumming. A head pupil, selected by the students, was in charge of discipline.

The hula students danced on a platform with an altar dedicated to Laka, decorated with vines and flowers. Their graduation was a special ceremony with a strict protocol. Graduating students remained in the halau for several days rehearsing, undergoing ritual purification in the sea, offering prayers, eating and so on. There was a graduation feast featuring a pig and, lastly, the dismantling of the altar followed by the ending of the kapu. The organization of today's halau hula is similar to that of the past. ~ Noted Hawaiian Scholar, George Kanahele, Pookela Course in Hawaiian Culture.

The earliest forms of Hawaiian dances, the mele hula, were used either in their temple forms (ha'a) or their public forms (hula). Ha'a were usually performed as part of worship in the heiau (temple), under the direction of a kahuna (priest). These dances were often done in conjunction with rituals and ceremonies related to the specific temple and also to specific deities within those temples. Some of these were like a form of worship, paying homage to the gods with tales of their exploits. Other hula honored the ali'I - the chiefs and royalty - whose genealogies often linked them to the gods. It was also danced for pleasure, with themes filled with deeply felt emotions. There was mana or life force and spiritual energy in the words, in the precision of the performance, in the discipline and harmony of the dancers' movements, and in their spiritual composure, a sacred continuum that linked gods with man and nature. ~ Hula: The Soul of Hawaii by Tracey Lakainapali

A lot of the present day dances are based on this Hi'iaka/ Laka epics and schools were begun to honor Laka as well as temples that were dedicated to her. Until the early twentieth century, ritual and prayer surrounded all aspects of hula. The teachers and students were dedicated to Laka, the goddess of hula and lived and trained in the temples. Appropriate offerings were made regularly as well. ~ Hula History- Aloha Magazine

" Hula teaches you everything about life. It teaches you about nature, respect, and about God."
~ Kamalei Sataraka ~

Some halau were located in a heiau (temple), in an area set apart for the hula. One of the best known halau can be found at Kee, near Haena on Kauai's north shore.

Although the hula dance is very popular today all over the world, and has existed for thousands of years, it almost died out when American Protestants missionaries came to Hawaii in the 1800s. They tried to convince the dancers to stop, because they believed that it clashed with the Christian beliefs they were trying to teach, but King Kalakaua encouraged this traditional dance, helping it to flourish.

King David Kalakaua once said, "Hula is the language of the heart, and therefore the heartbeat of the Hawaiian people." Although many people think the hula is swaying to a song with a grass skirt on and a steel guitar playing in the background, that is just a small portion of it.

Hula Photo Courtesy of Eddie Crisostomo ~ Hula dancers: Pomaikai Klein and Bobby Godinez Jr.

The hula is the literature of the Hawaiians. Ancient hula tells the story of the creation of the world and its creatures. Watching a hula is watching the history of Hawaii.

The sacred hula began to change and evolve through the centuries from "ha'a" a sacred ritual and religious celebration performed in the temples to "hula" a popular form of entertainment; common people and  newcomers to Hawaii danced the hula... all in Hawaiian society danced, male and female, no matter how old they were... every single old/new Hawaiian family, each with its own style of hula, brought their traditions, dance and protocols in which they have specialized... Hula practitioners merged Hawaiian poetry, chanted vocal performance, dance movements and costumes to create the new form, the hula ku'i ("to combine old and new")... The modern hula "Haole Hula."  was born and still continued to change.

There are many styles of hula, including whether the hula is ancient or modern, standing or seated, and with or without percussive implements.  but generally we can classify them into two main categories: Ancient hula, as performed before Western encounters with Hawai'i, is called kahiko  (old style). The hula kahiko typically uses dancing, traditional percussion instruments like skin and gourd drums, bamboo rattles, and sometimes castanets made of stones, and the chanting relate to the proud and somber history, customs, ceremonies, and traditions of the ancient Hawaii and the people of Hawaii.  Hula became contemporary as it evolved under Western influence, in the 19th and 20th centuries, is called ʻauana (modern style). The hula 'auana is the dance that is widely performed today. It is the combining of hula dance and music for a more playful, joyous, and spirited telling of contemporary life in the islands. It is accompanied a band playing songs and Western-influenced musical instruments such as the guitars, the ʻukuleles, and the double bass  with dancers in imaginative and creative costumes.

Terminology for two main additional categories is beginning to enter the hula lexicon: "Monarchy" includes many hula which were composed, choreographed and performed during the 19th to the kings. During that time the influx of Western culture created significant changes in the formal Hawaiian arts, including hula. "Ai Kahiko", meaning "in the ancient style" are those hula written in the 20th and 21st centuries that follow the stylistic protocols of the ancient hula kahiko.

Hula dancing is a complex art form with a relatively small number of steps, each with its own name and "Hana Kupono" protocol, and many secret hand motions used to signify all aspects of nature and the cosmos; the hula movements themselves are widely recognized to be the part of the dance carrying the most symbolic meaning so they are important when hula dancers have to perform. The movements tell a story, every single movement, expression and gesture in the hula has a specific meaning, from representing plants, animals, and the elements to listening, searching, sailing and so much more.  There is one basic hula position that is called Kahola to the right. To do this position the dancer has their right arm extended with their palms down and their left hand with their palms down held at the center of their body. They can also Kahola to the left by doing it the opposite way. Another move is the tree. Dancers do this by placing their right elbow with their arm up on top of the back of their left hand. A hula dancer cupping their hand with their palm up is showing a flower. Fingertips held together at the center of one’s body show a house. Aloha is when the dancer's arms are extended in a wide circle. To show a sea dancers put their palms down and make waves with their hands. There are many other movements also, such as the basic Hula Coconut Tree motions, or the basic leg steps, such as the Kaholo, Ka'o, and Ami.

"The first 26 dance steps (nä ke`ehi i ka ha`a) are recorded in the Hawaiian Dictionary authored by Mary Kawena Püku`i and Samuel H. Elbert. Most of them are used today but others are probably unheard of by many modern day students and still others have been taught with different names. Some of the steps are called by more than one name and will be listed together. There are steps, nä ke`ehi, that are not listed in the dictionary as hula steps, but have names that describe the action of the step and still there are others, with names whose origin is obscure. Each of the 3 groups will be listed separately. The term ha`a is used instead of hula. Ha`a as defined in the dictionary : a dance with bent knees; dancing; called hula after mid 1800's." ~ Hawaiian Dictionary authored by Mary Kawena Püku`i and Samuel H. Elbert. Nâ Ke`ehi I Ka Ha`a ~ Hula Steps Contributed and Researched by Kalani N. Po`omaiahealani

"The performers in the hula were divided into two classes, the olapa (agil ones) and the ho, Aoo-pa (steadfast ones). The olapa, as was fitting, was assigned to the young men and young women who could do best illustrate in their persons the grace and beauty of the human form. It was theirs, sometimes while singing, to move and pose and gesture in the dance: sometimes also to punctuate their song and action with the lighter instrument of music." From ~ Nathaniel Emerson,- Unwritten Literature of Hawaii

"Formality of ceremony, ritual, etiquette and protocol are very important to the hula halau. From the choosing of the materials for and the making of the leis that adorn head, wrists, ankles and neck, to the prayers performed before performances, to the dressing for a performance and the disposal of the leis afterward, often in the ocean, everything was done with ritual and respect." ~ Magic of the Hula by Tracey Lakainapali

Hana Kupono (Hawaiian Protocol)
"It is the right behavior,
conducted at the appropriate time,
by the proper people,
presented to the correct recipients,
toward a positive and significant end."

The Hana Kupono hula protocol and ceremony almost always involves words, presented usually in the form of oli, or chant. Chant takes the "mana" power of words, themselves recognized as highly significant in the Hawaiian  culture, and extends that power of words to a more profound level; both the dances and the chants contain a magic an a magnetism that transcends their external power and beauty, filling both dancer and audience with Aloha.

"Whatever the situation, Hawaiian protocol is based on a foundation of values that are important to everyone, regardless of their ancestry or upbringing. These are fundamentals such as respect for others and for the land, an attitude of sharing and responsibility for maintaining a balance between self and society and between human beings and the rest of the universe." ~ Samuel M. Ohukaniohia Gon III, Ph.D. Senior Scientist and Cultural Advisor, The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii

Hula Photo Courtesy of Eddie Crisostomo ~ Hula dancers: Pomaikai Klein and  Bobby Godinez Jr.

"The power (mana) of a chant, lies in its hidden meanings, or kaona. Hidden meanings, such as rain as a metaphor for love, could make a chant both a recounting of an actual event within a family's history, or it could tell of the love and passion that one person might feel for another, depending on who heard and understood the chant."

Chants: Mele Of Antiquity by Betty Fullard-Leo  

Traditional hula music included chanting, most of which was influenced by religion. "Chants fall into two broad categories, mele oli and mele hula. In pre-contact Hawai'i, mele was the word for "poetic language;" it has since evolved to mean song. In early Hawai'i, there was no melodic singing such as Westerners were accustomed to. Special bards, or haku mele, spent years learning to compose, recite and teach others to perform the ancient chants. Chanters began training as children. One popular training competition involved two youngsters lying chest down facing the sun beside a placid pool of water. Each inhaled, the slowly whispered, "na'u-u-u-u," while a third judged who could sustain the hum the longest by watching the rippling water. Breath control came from the chest, and training sessions could go on for hours with a student imitating the sound of breaking waves or the roar of a waterfall."  ..." The complexity of the chants of ancient Hawai'i reveals a race of quick-witted people, poetic and finely attuned to nature in their imagery, themes and kaona (hidden or double meanings)." ~ Chants: Mele Of Antiquity by Betty Fullard-Leo  

‘I le’a ka hula I ka ho’opa’a
The hula is pleasing because of the drummer. 

This proverb refers to the importance of small details that can make something become great and pleasing.

The most tradition instrument used for the hula is the drum called pahu. It stands two to three feet high and is made from the trunk of either the coconut or breadfruit tree. In accompaniment to the pahu is the puniu. The puniu/coconut knee drum is made from half of a coconut shell with the skin of the kala fish stretched over it. Another drum often used is the double gourd called ipu heke. Other commonly used instruments are the 'uli'uli (feather-decorated gourd rattle), pu'ili (split bamboo rattle), 'ili'ili (water-worn stone pebbles, two in each hand, played in a manner similar to castanets), and kala'au (sticks). There is a close correspondence between the foot motifs and the rhythmic patterns of the instruments (particularly the ipu and pahu). Nowadays, the traditional instruments used for the hula has been replaced by the guitar and ukulele.

The Hawaiian folk music also includes simple melodies and rhythms influenced by poetry. Although it originated for rituals and religious ceremonies. The music is written in 4/4 time with an accent on the first and third beats. The hula has a steady beat. Some songs are “I wish I were a bird,” “The Multiplication Table,” “I can hop,” and “Eight Islands.” There are many other songs also.

The hula is danced at luaus and is often seen at special festivals, ceremonies, and other special events such as weddings, funerals and greetings; Hula dancers usually wear a specific bright and colorful costume when dancing the hula. This typically consists of a fresh flower lei,  a flowered shirt, a  grass/hula skirt (made out of tapa), known as a pau, and kupeas are worn anklets made of dog-teeth or whale bone. Many people go to Hawaii only to see the hula dancers; for those who love and understand Hawaiian arts, history and music, hula is a special treat, because the chanting or singing will most likely include word-play, innuendo, secret and hidden meanings.

Hula is taught in schools called hālau and all members of halāu participate in many community activities, and cultural events. Each hālau is headed by the kumu who is the head of the school and the teacher, where kumu means source of knowledge. The hālau consists of the kumu, the 'olapas, and the ho'opa'a. Each hālau have important and formal protocols which must be followed. A very formal protocol practiced by all halaus is that before entering the school, you need to give a chant asking permission to enter. The kumu will listen to the chant and if they see that you are sincere in your wish to enter, they will chant back giving you permission to enter. If they see that you are not sincere though, they will not answer and will have you chant again and again until they see that you genuinely want to come in and learn what they have to teach. ~ Hula History- Aloha Magazine

There are other hula related dances (tamure, hura, aparima, otea, haka, poi, Fa'ataupati, Tau'olunga, and Lakalaka) that come from other Polynesian islands such as Tahiti, The Cook Islands, Samoa, Tonga and Aotearoa (New Zealand); however,

The hula is unique to the Hawaiian Islands...and the hula music has been passed through generations of Hawaiians, preserving their cultural heritage. Today, several hundred halau hula (hula schools) and less formal hula groups are active on every island and the mainland, teaching hula to thousands of students and keeping the old ways and traditional Hawaiian culture alive.

Hula Photo Courtesy of Eddie Crisostomo ~ Hula dancer Bobby Godinez Jr.

Today the spirit of Hula in the spirit of Aloha is alive all over the world and the vital expression of the Hawaiian culture lives on.

"For many with whom I have spoken, hula is all about being Hawaiian. For others it is about feeling the spirit of Hawai'i deep within the soul and upholding her culture and traditions. For some, it is about feeling lost and searching out that which brings them closer to feelings of completeness. It is about respect and love for our heritage, our kupuna (elders), the 'aina (a spiritual connection to the land), and one another. It is about giving unselfishly, unconditionally and finding peace within." ~ Hula: Past and Present, Local and Global by Anne-Kristine Tischendorf

"The hula is a way of life to which many students and teachers dedicate their lives. In Hawaiian culture, the hula is more than just dancing. The movements and gestures performed by dancers are just the surface. Underneath this surface is a cultural system that celebrates creation and procreation, a pantheon of gods and their descendants on earth, mythological and legendary exploits, historical events and places, ancestral beings and cherished relations, and natural manifestations of life forces that nurture and sustain Hawaiian people. Sacredness permeates much hula, and much of the work associated with creating, teaching, and performing hula.

Not all students aspire to deep levels of knowledge and understanding. Likewise, not all teachers who offer lessons have achieved insight into the spiritual depths of hula. Prospective students who wish to undertake study of the hula should understand that hula is held by many to be a serious endeavor, and that respect for Hawaiian cultural life ways is appropriate, and will be appreciated." ~ Amy Ku`uleialoha Stillman ~ Hula Halau Pomaika'ikeolahouoka'lani  

"We as students can learn from our kumu hula and duplicate their teaching or the style of dance. When it comes to expressing ourselves, our expression comes from within ourselves." ~ Odetta Kaohikukapulani Kinimaka-Alquiza ~

"Hula i ka la means dance in the sun. Twirl. Leap. Dance like sunlight. Hula is such a joyous display of life that being a part of it in any way, as dancer or audience, makes you happy. Hula reveals the unseen soul. It can take you on a journey through each emotion life has to offer: its tragedies and triumphs, the sensation of a first kiss, the sorrow of loss, the strength of spirit, the splendor of one another. Hula is the dance of Hawaii, and the most graceful aesthetic expression of our Island culture. Hula is a lifestyle, provoking inspiration, songs, art, and imagination. Hula is a bond that joins the present with the past, and celebrates that union with incomparable beauty. " ~ Kim Taylor Reece` Hula I Ka La: Dance in the Sun

" Enjoyed throughout the world for its beauty, its poetry, and prayer in motion, the Hula traces its ancient roots to the beginning of time. Hula is the highest form of artistic and spiritual expression in Hawai‘i. Spirit of Hula is an invitation to walk between worlds and dance the splendor of the sacred Hula together as ‘ohana, as family." Spirit of Hula by Leilani Petranek

"Hula is like a breath of life that is exquisitely embodied and expressed in patterns of movement and sound. It is everything that makes up the universe. Hula is a vital expression of our Hawaiian culture and is performed throughout the world. The pahu, ipu heke, chants, and language of hula all inspire us to a deeper understanding of the heritage and traditions of the Hawaiian people."
~ Berinobis, Floyd Shari 'Iolani 2004. The spirit of hula : photos and stories from around the world. Bess press, inc. Honolulu, Hi. pp. 16.

"Hula is a dance accompanied by a chant or song. It was developed in the Hawaiian Islands by the Polynesians who originally settled there. The chant or song is called a mele. The hula motions tell the story of the mele. Hawaiian history was oral history. In the absence of a written language, this was the only available method of ensuring accuracy. Chants told the stories of creation, mythology, royalty, and other significant events and people." ~ Mallorie Giunchiglini

"When learning hula, you learn the language and about the culture as well. It is all interwoven. The structure of the language embodies Hawaiian values. Learning about the hula implements, gathering ferns, seeds, or shells teaches you about the land, its history and values like respectful behavior.

It is the living history of the Hawaiian people, telling their myths and legends, stories and values through songs, chants and music accompanied by dance with descriptive hand gestures and rhythmic movement of feet and hips." ~ Anne-Kristine Tischendorf

Hawaiian hula is unique and totally different from other Polynesian dances. Although it began as a form of worship during religious ceremonies, it gradually evolved into a pure form of entertainment, ... the historical, cultural, spiritual, original purpose: to entertain, to inspire and to instruct survived.

"Through the Hula we are endowed with great heritage."
~ Maiki Aiu ~

Hula Photo Courtesy of Eddie Crisostomo ~ Hula dancer Pomaikai Klein

Every movement in hula has a specific meaning, and every expression of the dancer's hands has great significance. The movements of a dancer's body might represent certain plants, animals, and even war. For example, in imitating a shark or waving palm tree, the true hula dancer believes he or she becomes the shark or palm. " Ala Mua, Hawaii

"As for the sacred Hula, a performer would go into a kind of trance by meditating on the god, spirit, or intention to be represented before the dance. The dance itself was a carefully choreographed affair whose power came from the dancer's skills in connecting with the spirit or intent being expressed. A deeper trance or focus might occur as a side effect, but the primary purpose of the sacred hula was to teach or move the audience. Ecstatic or trance-inducing dance was not part of the Polynesian culture." ~ Serge Kahili King, Ph.D. Urban Shaman

"Hula is a reflection of life. Hula is a way of retelling history. Hula is a way of taking what is thought and what is seen into a movement, and accepting all of these as a way of keeping our history of retelling stories, of remembering births. Hula is many depths of things. It goes from the action of what's going on, to the person who is actually seeing what is going on, and thinking it through, putting it into words. And to the person who comes along, takes the words, and choreographs it so the story is remembered, and put it into movement. And then there is the dancer, who listens to what the choreographer says, who is listening to the story and listening to the words, and reliving the image of what originally happened. And so hula takes many, many steps before it's actually done. It's a way of remembering and it's a very esoteric, sometimes, way of talking about history. It's an art piece of how you express a birth, without actually looking at the literal birth. And so it's a very esoteric form of history."~ Pualani Kanaka'ole Kanahele

"For when it is done well, hula represents a metaphysical union of the forces that have always characterized man's attempts to make himself one with the universe".~ Stagner, Ishmael. 1985. HULA! (ed.) Kelley, P. The Institute for Polynesian Studies. Laie, Hi. Pp.1

"Of all Hawaii's cultural elements, the hula has played the most significant role in establishing the island's mystique as an exotic paradise. But hula is more than a dance: it combines painstaking choreography and the epic poetry of chants, or mele, that are rooted in Hawaii’s consciousness. In many ways, it’s a form of worship, as hula pays homage to the gods with elaborate tales of their exploits. It’s also popular entertainment, danced for appreciative audiences with themes of natural beauty, passion, and other deeply felt emotions. No matter what the subject, the hula is danced with spirituality, not in an otherworldly or moralizing sense, but as a means of expressing awe, appreciation, and homage. Filled with rare historical images and stunning full-color photographs, The Art of Hula explores every aspect of this ancient art form that symbolizes Hawaii’s aboriginal culture, its gods, and its spiritual beliefs." ~ The Art of the Hula (Island Treasures) by Allan Seiden

"If hula is only about being Hawaiian in blood, it is a dying art along with the Hawaiian race slowly watering out. If hula is about respect and love for our heritage, our kupuna (elders), the 'aina (land), and one another, the spirit can resonate with people beyond their (Hawaiian) ethnic identity. Through hula, dancers of any color or nationality can give unselfishly, unconditionally and find peace within".
Hula: Past and Present, Local and Global
by Anne-Kristine Tischendorf

One kumu puts it this way: "Our halau (Halau Hula O Napunaheleonapua) motto is "It doesn't matter who you are, or where you come from, for as long as you have love for hula, you belong here". ~ Berinobis, Floyd Shari 'Iolani 2004. The spirit of hula : photos and stories from around the world. Bess press, inc. Honolulu, Hi. pp. 12.

The hula has survived, ultimately flourishing, not as a cultural relic, but as a catalyst in the revival of Hawaiian culture that continues to this day, when the hula halau, or troupes, number in the hundreds and include devotees not only in Hawai'i, but in places around the world. Their efforts have given new life to hula, assuring it a role in a cultural renaissance that honors the past yet looks toward the future." ~ The Art of Hula By Allan Seiden

The hula is a rich tradition of Hawaii and has gone through many stages in its history.

"Nana i ke kumu", advises a famous Hawaiian proverb, "Pay attention to the source." In hula this can bear the obvious meaning of "Watch what your teacher (kumu) does." It also contains a more profound admonition not to lose sight of hula's roots (kumu) in the ancient protocols of Hawai'i and Polynesia. If it loses this connection, hula can indeed become just one more style of dancing. How po`e hula (hula people) cope with this challenge will determine how hula develops in this century and centuries to come.
~ Bishop Museum publication HULA HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ~

Ancient Hula History ~ 1000 BC-2010

Pö  Darkness  -  Ao  Light - Hawaii a place of creation.
1000 BC - As far back as 1000 BC, Egyptian children played with hula hoops made from dried and bent grapevines. In the 14th century, hooping became popular among adults and children alike in Great Britain. When British sailors traveled to Hawaii in the 1800s, they saw hula dancers with hoops and so developed the phrase "hula hoop."

650 AD - AD 650, when the first people arrived on the islands. Celebrating the Ancient Hula: Hula is the heartbeat of Hawaiian culture, and Molokai is its birthplace. Although most visitors to Hawaii never get to experience the hula dance, it's possible to see it here -- once a year, on the third Saturday in May, when Molokai celebrates the birth of the hula at its Ka Hula Piko .

1200 - Settled as early as 1200 AD, as many as 6000 Hawaiians once lived in the valleys of the Na Pali. Now there were only the legends. Near the beginning of the trail , for instance, is the ancient temple, Kaulu Paoa, where the goddess Pele danced the hula and fell in love with the high chief Lohiau. According to Hawaiian legends, the original hula dance was performed by a god or goddess, making the dance sacred to Hawaiian culture.

1200- 1778 - Prior to 1778 in the pre-European period, hula was closely tied to religious practices. Dances accompanied by the pahu (sharkskin-covered log drum, used in temple ceremonies) appear to be the most sacred, dedicated to the gods.

1778 - Hula ~The Heartbeat of Hawaii ~The ancient, 200-year old chant 'Ulei Pahu. According to noted scholar Mary Kawena Püku`i, who learned ‘Ulei Pahu from Keahi Luahine, the chant is a prophecy given by a Kaua‘i priest who foresaw the coming of Captain James Cook and the drastic changes that would follow in the lives of the Hawaiians. E tu i ta hoe uli /E tohi i ta pale tai: Seize the steering paddle and press it to the side of your canoe, resist the onslaught of tide and current, steer free, steer clear. This advice, from the 200-year-old chant ‘Ulei Pahu, has been handed down unchanged from kumu to kumu.  Pukui’s daughter, Pat Namaka Bacon, learned it from her mother and passed it on to de Silva, to be taught exactly as it was handed down and presented "when the time was right."

It is chanted, among others, by one of the island's most traditional kumu hula ( teacher), Mapuana de Silva, as her fern, ti and maile leaf leibe decked dancers step onto a modern stage to tell an ancient story.

1779 - In ancient Hawaiian religion, the Kumulipo or ""He Kumulipo"", meaning "A source of darkness/origin", is a chant. In some cultures, children are brought up thinking that the dark is a bad place, one to avoid. Hawaiians thought of it as a place of creation.

"At the time when the earth became hot, when the heavens turned inside out, when the light of the sun was weakened causing the moon to shine, the time of the rise of the Pleiades, the time of night darkness, the realm of Gods, the time of Po... The slime was the source of the earth, the source of deep darkness, the source of the darkness born of darkness, the depth of darkness, darkness of the sun, darkness of the night. Nothing but darkness.

The night gave birth. Born in this night was Kumulipo, the source of life - male. Born was Po`ele, night blackness - female... "

Night followed night and born to the darkness were the eternal spirits. This was the beginning of the earth...

Born were the plants...born were the fishes of the sea and the animals that swam the air. Born were the creeping things, the birds and the crawlers...

Still it was night. For such was the time of Po, where it was still dark. Tranquil was the time as night pressed...

"It was calmness then when the wombs gave birth. So was born the ancestor of the race and well formed was the child. The first chief of the dim past who dwelt in the cold uplands. This was the time when men multiplied, when men came from afar, born of woman, of man and of gods. They were born in the hundreds and in ever increasing numbers. It was the time of Ao. It was day."

The Kumulipo is a total of 2012 lines long, in honor of Kalaninui'iamamao. The Kumulipo is a cosmogonic genealogy, which means that it relates to the stars and the moon. Out of the 2012 lines, it has 16 "wā" which means era or age. In each wā, something is born whether it is a human, plant, or creature. From Wikipedia

As Hawaiian historian, Herb Kawainui Kane states in the PBS series, The Hawaiians, "The entire universe was an orderly, fixed whole in which all the parts were integral to the whole, including man, himself. Man was descended from the Gods but so were the rocks, so were the animals, so were the fish. Thus man had to regard the rocks, the fish and the birds as his relatives. It's an ecological point of view which western man is only beginning to discover now."

One of the last times that the full Kumulipo is known to have been solemnly recited was in 1779. That was in honor of Captain Cook who arrived at Kealakekua Bay on January 16, 1779. The Hawaiian natives thought that Captain Cook was the god Lono returning to Hawaii. They could not have been more incorrect. From the Kumulipo the Song of Creation By John Fisher- Hawaii/ South Pacific Travel.

1790 - The annual Establishment Day Hawaiian Festival was held this weekend at the Pu' ukohola Heiau National Historical Park, the location of the sacred stone structure built under the rule Kamehameha I in 1790. Halau Okaleihoohie performed hula kahiko at Saturday's event. The event featured a royal court procession as well as hula, arts, crafts and cultural exhibits. The festival's theme was “Ke Kulana Noeau o Ka Wa Kahiko (The Culture of Ancient Hawaii).”

1819 - The ancient Hawaiian traditions were so misogynistic that Queens Kaahumanu and Kapiolani, the two most powerful people in the kingdom at the time of Kamehameha II's ascent to the throne, convinced the child-king to abolish the ancient Hawaiian religion in 1819.
Ancient hula was always performed exclusively by men; were a woman caught in the action, the penalty was death. The royal family then ordered the people to burn the wooden statues and tear down the rock temples. Note: (Some believe the hula was only danced by men, but legend and historical sources tells us both men and women danced hula)...

"There are, however, many records and legends which tell of both men and women performing the hula. What is known for certain is that women were doing the dance when Captain Cook and his crew first arrived in the islands in 1778. " From Hula: The Soul of Hawaii by Tracey Lakainapali

1820 - In the 1820s, the American missionaries arrived in the islands and brought with them Christianity. Queen Ka'ahumanu became a Christian and ordered all heiau (sacred temple sites) and images destroyed which ended the Hawaiian rituals. Gradually, the significance of the dances was lost to general understanding. The missionaries said that hula was 'suggestive' and 'heathen' and so it was outlawed as a pagan practice soon after. The hula went underground and was performed in secret so that the art was not lost. It was during this time that the hula received its reputation of being 'exotic' and was often performed for the amusement and entertainment of the sailors and tourists. From Hawaiian Hula Dance- Hula History- Aloha Magazine

1820 - American Protestant missionaries who arrived in 1820 introduced Christianity and prevailing Western values. With the support of converted high-ranking chiefs, they denounced and banned the hula as heathen dance.
Declining numbers of hula practitioners therefore taught and performed clandestinely through the mid- nineteenth century. The art of ancient hula was nearly wiped out. The reign of King David Kalakaua (1874-1891) was a transitional phase for Hawaiian performing arts.

1820 - Missionaries arrived in 1820, and most of the aliʻi converted to Christianity, including Ka'ahumanu and Keōpūolani, but it took 11 years for Kaʻahumanu to proclaim laws against ancient religious practices. “Worshipping of idols such as sticks, stones, sharks, dead bones, ancient gods and all untrue gods is prohibited. There is one God alone, Jehovah. He is the God to worship. The hula is forbidden, the chant (olioli), the song of pleasure (mele), foul speech, and bathing by the ocean.

April 1820 - In April 1820, missionaries bent on converting the pagans arrived from New England. The missionaries clothed the natives, banned them from dancing the hula , and nearly dismantled their ancient culture. They tried to keep the whalers and sailors out of the bawdy houses, where a flood of whiskey quenched fleet- size thirsts and the virtue of native women was never safe. They taught reading and writing, created the 12-letter Hawaiian alphabet, started a printing press,

1821 - When the missionaries arrived in Hawaii, they quickly banned the Hula as they thought this dance to be too sensual. The moving hands and feet, the swirling hips and the squatting was not what they wanted to see. But the Hula refused to go away. The beloved Hawaiian dance continued to be practiced in secret until the ban was lifted.
The KAHIKO is the ancient Hula. It is performed in traditional costumes like the green ti leaf skirt. The Hula AUANA is the modern.

1824 - Kalaninui kua Liholiho i ke kapu ʻIolani.(c. 1797–July 14, 1824) King Kamehameha II ( and his young wife Kamāmalu  died of the measles, a disease totally alien to them, while on a tour of England in 1824. Their unexpected deaths may well have been an omen, for soon thereafter the near-death of Hawaiian culture came during the 30-year reign of Keaweaweʻula Kiwalaʻo Kauikeaouli Kaleiopapa Kamehameha III (1813-1854), Hawaii's third ruler. At the outset the king, highly disturbed by the general drift away from Hawaiian traditions, attempted to revive many of the ancient pastimes, including Hula dance.

1830 - 1830s, King Kamehameha III issued an edict granting religious freedom and the missionaries, recognizing that the hula could not be quelled, countered with the condition that the dancers wear the Victorian-style high necked and long sleeved gown in substitution of the pa'u. In. From Hawaiian Hula Dance- Hula dance history- Aloha Magazine.

1832 - When Ka'ahumanu died in 1832, King Kauikeaouli Kamehameha III tried to reestablish Hawaiian traditions. He lifted the hula dancing ban, erased penalties for adultery, and slept with his sister according to ancient custom. But Christianity had become firmly ingrained in many of the ali'i by this point, and they demanded he return to Christian values. With this rebuke of his royal authority, he lost interest in trying to change the direction the country was heading.

1843 - In February 1843, British Captain Lord George Paulet pressured Kamehameha III into surrendering the Hawaiian kingdom to the British crown, but Kamehameha III alerted London of the captain's rogue actions which eventually restored the kingdom's independence. Less than five months later, British Admiral Thomas rejected Paulet's actions and the kingdom was restored on July 31.

It was at the end of this period of uncertainty that the king uttered the phrase that eventually became Hawaii’s motto:
~ Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono ~ "The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness."

July 31, 1842 was celebrated thereafter as Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea, Sovereignty Restoration Day, an official national holiday of the kingdom. Later that year, on November 28, Britain and France officially recognized the independence of the Hawaiian Kingdom, and that too became a national holiday, Lā Kūʻokoʻa — Independence Day.

1853 - In the summer of 1853 an epidemic of smallpox caused thousands of deaths, mostly on the island of Oahu.

1862 March 6, 1862 - This year's competition chants of Maui, "Aia Ka La'ii Pi'iholo" and "Aia Ka La' ii Ka'uiki" were taken from a collection of mele found in the March 6, 1862 issue of the Hawaiian newspaper, Ka Hoku o ka Pakipika. The origin of the mele is unknown, but a shining example of the importance placed by our kupuna on preserving and conveying these pieces of cultural wisdom for the future.

1868 - Dancing hula or speaking Hawaiian at school could be punished. Both the ancient traditions and the Hawaiian people themselves nearly died out. (Hence the importation of huge numbers of disease-resistant laborers from countries such as China, Japan, Philippine Islands and Portugal).

1873 - When Charles Warren Stoddard recorded in 1873 his fortunate observation of the ancient hula, the art was barely reemerging from underground; and Stoddard, the tourist in quest of the idyllic, had scarcely the means for interpreting these vigorous, heroic dances. ' Judging Hawai'i by its modern hula and love songs is like judging the European Renaissance by its sonnets alone, or the American mainland exclusively by its country and western music and lyrics.

1874 - Regretfully, hula went underground from many years and was practiced and passed on in secret until the ascension to the Hawaiian throne of the elected King David Kalakāua in 1874. Kalakāua, nostalgic for the glory of old Hawaii, wrestled with the tumultuous changes of the time. When he reintroduced the hula in a grand manner at his inauguration on the grounds of Honolulu's ʻIolani Palace, the Hawaiian people were ecstatic.

February 13, 1874 -On February 13, 1874, at noon, Kaläkaua took the oath of office. That same day, Queen Emma recognized him as king. She asked her supporters to do the same. What sort of man was Kaläkaua? He came from a line of high chiefs of the island of Hawai'i. His queen, Kapi'olani, came from the ruling family of Kaua'i. Kaläkaua was well educated. He could speak English and Hawaiian fluently. He loved music and the arts. During his reign he tried to bring back ancient customs and the Hula dance.

1877 July 11, 1877 - Kapiolani Park was given to the people of Hawaii by King David Kalakaua on Kamehameha Day, July 11, 1877, and was named for his queen. Today, it's home to the Honolulu Zoo, the Waikiki Aquarium (third oldest in the US), and the Waikiki Shell, an open-air amphitheatre where every Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday at 10 am the free Kodak Hula Show is performed. In ancient times, hula was a joyful religious celebration. It was also a major folk art that was integral to the culture.

1883 - Interest in Hula has revived in the last decade after it was banned by the missionaries in the 1880s and revived by King Kalakaua in 1883. Hula Fact: It took about 1000 eye teeth from dogs to make an ankle rattle for use in the ancient hula. Kupe'e shells are used today.

Hula practitioners merged Hawaiian poetry, chanted vocal performance, dance movements and costumes to create the new form, the hula ku'i (ku'i means "to combine old and new"). The pahu appears not to have been used in hula ku'i, evidently because its sacredness was respected by practitioners; the ipu gourd (Lagenaria sicenaria) was the indigenous instrument most closely associated with hula ku'i. Ritual and prayer surrounded all aspects of hula training and practice, even as late as the early twentieth century. Teachers and students were dedicated to the goddess of the hula, Laka.

February 12, 1883 - But the cultural tides turned again when King David Kalakaua, the 'Merrie Monarch' invited the best dancers and chanters to perform at his coronation on February 12, 1883. Since then, the art of the hula has evolved into several popular genres, ranging from the ancient (hula kahiko) to the modern (hula ' auana). There is also an ongoing tradition of combining the two forms, known as hula ku'i. This concept of joining the old and new has fostered hula's ongoing revival.

..."The content of kahiko dancing is mostly concerned with legends, ancient gods and goddesses, chiefs, and royalty. That of 'auana can be virtually anything, from romance, to gossip, to praise of people and places, to simply telling about a great party, picnic, or adventure someone had." From Serge Kahili King, Ph.D. The Hula Experience.

1886 - His family for performance at 50th birthday party in 1886 One of the other troupes that performed at the recent lolani Palace hula festival was under the direction of Waikiki entertainer Robert Cazimero, who tries to infuse elements of modern life into the ancient traditions, movements and expressions of the hula. I've always considered myself a contemporary teacher," Cazimero says. are a part of society today.

1891 - King Kalakaua traveled the world and, in 1891, fell ill in San Francisco. But before his death, he brought about a rebirth of the Hawaiian culture, which had been systematically erased by three generations of missionaries. When he was elected king, he single-handedly brought back the ancient traditions of the hula dance, long condemned as obscene. "The rebirth of Hawaiian culture begins with Kalakaua's coronation."

1892 April 7, 1892 - SUPPORT AND ORGANIZATION OF THE HULA In ancient times the hula to a large extent was a creature of royal support, and for good reason. The ancient goddess, or ancestor, the sixth in line of descent from Wakea. From The Lesser Gods of Hawaii, a paper by Joseph S. Emerson, read before the Hawaiian Historical Society.

1893  January 17, 1893 illegal overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii by The United States of America which resulted in the suppression of the inherent sovereignty of the Native Hawaiian people.

The Kingdom of Hawaii was established during the years 1795 to 1810 with the subjugation of the smaller independent chiefdoms of Oahu, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Kaua'i and Niihau by the chiefdom of Hawai'i (or the "Big Island") into one unified government. It lost its independence to an armed revolt led by American residents in 1893, and was annexed to the United States in 1898.

In 1993 the 103rd Congress unanimously signed into Public Law the Apology Bill. America publicly admitted to illegally overthrowing its ally and trading partner the Sovereign Kingdom of Hawaii and falsely imprisoning their beloved Queen Lili'uokalani (2 September 1838 - 11 November 1917))

Queen Lili'oukalani of Hawaii

Lydia Paki Kamaka'eha Lili'uokalani

Queen Lili'uokalani was the queen of the Hawaiian Islands from 1891 until 1893, when she was deposed by those who sought annexation to the United States.

1893 - In the year 1893, the Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown by the US, marking the divergence of two styles of traditional hula. Both forms of the dance, the ancient Hula Kahiko and the modern Hula 'Auana, are choreographed to interpret a poetic text called mele. Although the two dances are both a form of hula, Hawaii's most popular art form, the two dances have many differences. The older, more indigenous form of hula, Hula Kahiko, is danced to chants in Hawaiian. Hula 'Auana vs. Hula Kahiko essays -

1896 - Their grandkids banned the Hawaiian language in 1896. The population collapse from 1778-1893 is also a matter of record. The American missionaries initiated a "cultural bomb" on the Hawaiians by limiting hula, discrediting Hawaiian history and ancient chants and discrediting ancient practices like caring for the land and the ocean.

1897 - Universal among human cultures is the concept of origin, man's emergence from the void. Hawaiians find the story of their own emergence in epic creation chants that trace life to a cosmic night.

The Kumulipo, the source of life, is an ancient Hawaiian mele oli, or chant, consisting of over 2000 lines. The ancient Hawaiian kahunas, or priests, would memorize every word and recite the oli at important events such as the festival of the god Lono. This is the oli that tells of the origin of the Hawaiian people. From: The Kumulipo - Song of Creation By John Fischer

At the time when the earth became hot, when the heavens turned inside out, when the light of the sun was weakened causing the moon to shine, the time of the rise of the Pleiades, the time of night darkness, the realm of Gods, the time of Po...

At the time that turned the heat of the earth,
At the time when the heavens turned and changed,
At the time when the light of the sun was subdued
To cause night to break forth,
At the time of the night of Makali'i (winter)
Then began the slime which established the earth.
The source of deepest darkness.
Of the depth of darkness, of the depth of darkness,
Of the darkness of the sun, in the depth of night,
It is night,
So was night born.
(From the Kumulipo)

In 1897, the dethroned Queen Lili'uokalani translated the Kumulipo, the ancient Hawaiian creation chant, from a Hawaiian text published by her brother King Kalakaua in 1889. The preface to her slim volume, written by Kimo Campbell, considers ulterior motives the two monarchs might have had for their interest in the Kumulipo. King Kalakaua was elected to his office and may have wanted to provide a more substantial and dignified presence by using this genealogy chant to establish himself as a descendant of the ancient chiefs of Hawai'i.

Lili'uokalani, the author postulates, published the manuscript both for her personal satisfaction and to refute a popular pro-annexation argument that Hawaiians were ignorant savages who had no culture prior to the arrival of Captain Cook.

The complexity of the chants of ancient Hawai'i reveals a race of quick-witted people, poetic and finely attuned to nature in their imagery, themes and kaona (hidden or double meanings). The Kumulipo, a genealogy chant, is only one of many kinds of lyrical chants composed by the ancients. From Chants: Mele Of Antiquity by Betty Fullard-Leo.

1901 - "Lured by Hawaiian music, we wandered toward the Banyan Veranda of Waikiki's oldest hotel, the Moana, built in 1901. As the hula performance began, we sat outside beneath the mighty branches of the ancient banyan tree." From Conference Center -

1909 - Unwritten Literature of Hawai'i: Sacred Songs of the Hula by Nathaniel B. Emerson remains one of the most important written sources available for an understanding of the culture and mythology of hula, the ancient Hawaiian dance. First published in 1909, Emerson's absorbing study of hula draws upon the extensive oral sources which were still available at the end of the nineteenth century.

1911 October 7, 1911 - Sarah Kealamapuana Malina Ka`ilikea, composer and Kauai's "Living Treasure", was born on October 7, 1911. Her reminisces and sprightly voice are interwoven among the songs. This is the first time her work has been collected. She studied ancient religious practices, chant, hula, legends and language. She also learned many cultural practices and philosophy from her kupuna and their associates.

1915 - As in many other traditional cultures, Hawaiian art, dance, music and poetry were highly integrated into every aspect of life, to a degree far beyond that of industrial society. The poetry at the core of the Hula is extremely sophisticated. Typically a Hula song has several dimensions: mythological aspects, cultural implications, an ecological setting, and in many cases, (although Emerson is reluctant to acknowledge this) frank erotic imagery. The extensive footnotes and background information allow us an unprecedented look into these deeper layers. While Emerson's translations are not great poetry, they do serve as a literal English guide to the amazing Hawaiian lyrics. (From sacred-texts.com) Nathaniel Bright Emerson (1839 - 1915) Nathaniel Bright Emerson (born July 1, 1839 Waialua, Oahu, died July 16, 1915, at sea) was a medical physician and author of Hawaiian mythology.

1915 - Harriet Luahine was born in 1915 in the village of Nāpo'opo'o, near Captain Cook, Hawaii . Her given name was Harriet Lanihau Makekau, and she was the youngest of five daughters in a pure Hawaiian family that traced its genealogy to dancers and keepers of ancient Hawaiian rituals and chants. [1] [2] Iolani was raised by her great aunt Julia Keahi Luahine (1877-1937), who began educating her in the ancient Kauai school of hula when she was four years old.  [1] [2] ...From Wikipedia - Wiki: Iolani Luahine -

August 1915 - In the death in August, 1915, of Nathaniel B. Emerson, MD, the territory of Hawaii loses one more of that older generation of native-born foreigners who knew from childhood the language and the people of old Hawaii, and interested themselves in its ancient lore.

1925 - “On occasion, Queen Lili'uokalani taught music, and one of her students, Charles E. King, wrote Hawaii's best-known opera, Prince of Hawaii, which debuted in 1925. A tale of love and machinations in ancient Hawaii—replete with prince, princess, hula dancers, a chorus and musicians—Prince contained twenty-four songs, several of which have become Island classics, including 'Beautiful Kahana' and 'Ke Kali Nei Au' ( better known as 'The Hawaiian Wedding Song').”  King said he wrote the song while convalescing in Queen's hospital in 1925 for his operetta, Prince of Hawaii. Introduced by the Royal Hawaiian Band, this song featured a duet by John Paoakalani Heleluhe and Lizzie Alohikea.

Ke Kali Nei Au (Waiting For Thee)
- Words & music by Charles King-

Eia au ke kali nei
Aia la i hea ku'u aloha
Eia au ke huli nei
A loa`a `oe e ka ipo
Maha ka `i`ini a ka pu`uwai
Ua sila pa`a `ia me `oe
Ko aloha makamae e ipo
Ka`u ia e lei a`e nei la
Nou no ka `i`ini (nou ka `i`ini)
A nou wale no (wale no)
A o ko aloha ka`u e hi`ipoi mau
Na'u `oe (na'u `oe)
E lei (e lei)
Na'u `oe e lei
A he hali`a kai hiki mai
No ku`u lei onaona
Pulupe i ka ua
Auhea `oe ka `i`ini a loko
Na loko a`e ka mana`o
Hu`e lani ana i ku`u kino
Ku`u pua ku`u lei onaona
A`u i kui a lawa ia nei
Me ke ala pua pikake
A o `oe ku`u pua (`O `oe ku`u pua)
Ku`u pua lei lehua (lehua)
A`u e li`a mau nei ho`opa`a
Ia iho k ealoha
He lei (he lei)
`Oe na`u (`oe na`u)
He lei `oe na`u

Here I am waiting
Where is my beloved  
I've searched for you
Now that I've found you
Calm the desire of my heart  
Sealed forever to you
Sweetheart you are so precious
I pledge my love to you alone  
I desire you (desire)
True to you alone (alone)
With you joy will ever be mine
You're mine (you're mine)
Oh, my lei (Oh, lei)
You're mine, my lei
Fond remembrance of the one who came
My fragrant lei
Drenched in the rain  
Listen you, my heart's desire
To the thought within me
Open the heaven within my body  
My flower, my fragrant lei
I will string and bind
Like the fragrant jasmine flower  
You are my blossom (you, my blossom)
My lei of lehua (lehua)  
My desire is always to be with and close
To my love 
My lei (my lei)
You're mine
My lei, you're mine
Source: King's Blue Book, Copyright 1926, 1943 by Charles E. King

1928 - May Day in Hawaii is Lei Day. The tradition started back in 1928, and it was a way to encourage people to wear and celebrate lei. The festivities at Queen Kapi'olani Park were an amazing mix of lei, hula, and great food. More than eighty years after its start, May Day is going strong in Hawaii. It's a day celebrating the ancient Hawaiian art of making and wearing lei.

February 25, 1928 - George Naope was born Feb 25, 1928, in Hilo and was already beginning his hula career at age 3. He began teaching hula by the time he was 13. Over his lifetime, the kumu hula taught the kahiko hula, or ancient hula, in Europe, Japan, Australia the mainland and South America. Naope also recorded several albums, but mostly was know for his deep love of the pageantry, protocol and pomp of hula. His passion shined in the presence of at least two US presidents. ... From Hawaiian artists News - George Naope 1928-2009.

March 4, 1928 - From the shadows of the wide spreading banyan tree comes the quaint strain of an ancient hula. You hear the salutation Aloha kakol. You are in Hawaii forever. Towering needle of the lao Valley Maui. Ruins of the first sugar mill on the island of Oahu. Outrigger canoe of a native fisherman ... From HAWAII.

August 20, 1928 - With the of torch lights illuminating the scene on the edge of Halemau mau Secretary of War Davis saw twelve Hawaiian girls in native costume dance the hula and toss leis into the seething crater In an ancient sacrificial ceremony. Native Hawaiians the deep rumblings of Hale maumau ... From DAVIS WATCHES HULA DANCED-

The hula dance, historic, exotic, and romantic, has epitomized the somewhat intangible lure of the tropical Pacific for over two centuries. The idealized Hula Girl—with her ukulele, grass skirt, and curvy figure—evolved into the ultimate symbol of fantasy and lured tourists to Hawaii... From Hula: Vintage Hawaiian Graphics

1929 June 8, 1929 -  The hula has revived in a commercialized form "It Is jazz and other modern music that Is fast dragging our ancient hula into something disgraceful rather than preserving It as one of the most beautiful dances of any people" said Mrs. Elizabeth Beamer... From LITTLE GIRL DEVOTED TO HULA STUDY- Hula changed drastically in the early twentieth century due to tourists and Hollywood film audiences.

1931 January 11, 1931 - The article that follows describes a recent over the country of that ancient and notable people. In nine days more than 3700 miles were flown ..... wall towering around a crystal I lake where we had sighted three thatched hula of the shy Lacandon Indians-most primitive of modern Mayas... From MAYAN CENTURIES; In Jungles Covering an Old Culture The Aviator

1937 December 12, 1937 - The popular conception of the Hawaiian Islands is of a land where the outstanding features are hula dancers, throbbing guitars, ... Visiting in the homes of white, L. of Honolulu, one is impressed by their grasp of the beauty by the ancient east and the west and the manner in they dance the Hula... From There's More to Hawaii Than Hula and Leis -

1938 January 2, 1938 -Hula Dancer. Miss Kahala Bray, 20-year-old part-Hawaiian girl of Honolulu, who is going to give us a dancing lesson, is lithe and slender. Her skirt requires a minimum number of ti leaves, and this is the proper technique for stripping the leaf from the rib, preparatory to weaving ti leaf skirt... From THEY PICK THEIR HULA SKIRTS FROM THE TREES IN HAWAII -

Kumu Hula George Lanakilakeikiahiali'i Na'ope, Aunty Dot/Merrie Monarch, Iolani Luahine, Lokalia Montgomery, Maiki Aiiu Lake, Lei and Twyla Mendez, John Keola Lake, Hu'i Park, Kamalei Sataraka, Loea Kawaikapu Hewitt, Kealoha Kalama, Keali'i Reichel.

1940 June 30, 1940 - Six hours later at low water the mud-flats are bare, and seaweed fringes the rocks with dark hula-hula costumes. The gulls continue their persistent picketing of Tim ... You'd never know that ancient lunge had such power, or that the English language had so many four-letter words. ... From Hula Article 6 -- No Title; SPRING -

1947 October 13, 1947 - The program will feature a revival of Hawaiian tradition, culture, and history and will provide eight days of ancient ceremonies, ... There will be a hula pageant. An outstanding event will be the community-wide Holoku l Balls...From Pageants Add Color to Aloha Fete -

1948 December 28, 1948 - Fire dances of Pele tapa cloth and grass skirt hulas ancient war chants stone tossing folk sports the famous bamboo bal let of Oahu exotic love songs and pigskin drum ceremonials are features of Nona Kapua's Hula Revue to be shown at the Assistance League Playhouse Holly wood Thursday ... From 'Hula Revue' Will Stress Varieties -

1952 -  Margaret Aiu's opened her first hula studio, in the late 1940s. In 1952, her teachers permitted her to use the term 'halau'--the first time in many years the term had been used. Maiki welcomed all to her halau, and was instrumental in bringing male dancers back to the hula. During all this, she consistently performed at Waikiki nightspots, and she saw night club hula and ancient auana and kahiko styles of dancing as all part of the whole.

1953 - Pualani Kanahele and her sister, Nalani Kanahele, are kumu of a hula halau, Halau O Kekuhi, that their mother founded in 1953. The sisters both work to perpetuate some of the oldest Hawaiian cultural traditions including mele oli and mele hula, which are complex forms of an ancient art combining dance, music and literature.

"We have inherited a rich tradition of hula (dances) and mele oli (chants), full of stories of gods and goddesses, ceremonies, prayers, protocol, imagery, wisdom, and intelligence. This tradition teaches how to respect family, appreciate natural phenomena, memorize lengthy chants, love the land, understand hierarchy, recognize life and death cycles, and acknowledge and honor the presence of life. This gift is matrilineal; however, by adding to it our childhood experiences and paternal influences, we have gained a broader understanding of space and time in connection with cultural history and practices and their evolution."

As my grandson said — who is four years old — hula is the tree, hula is the ocean. And he is totally correct. Hula is a reflection of life. Hula is a way of retelling history. Hula is a way of taking what is thought and what is seen into a movement, and accepting all of these as a way of keeping our history of retelling stories, of remembering births. Hula is many depths of things. It goes from the action of what's going on, to the person who is actually seeing what is going on, and thinking it through, putting it into words. And to the person who comes along, takes the words, and choreographs it so the story is remembered, and put it into movement. And then there is the dancer, who listens to what the choreographer says, who is listening to the story and listening to the words, and reliving the image of what originally happened. And so hula takes many, many steps before it's actually done. It's a way of remembering and it's a very esoteric, sometimes, way of talking about history. It's an art piece of how you express a birth, without actually looking at the literal birth. And so it's a very esoteric form of history.

Hula has gone through many different stages. It went through a stage where we were not allowed to dance it. And where there was a lot of misunderstanding about what hula portrays. It is at this point being more accepted into the social conducts of people, because what hula does is transport us from this world into another. It is that vehicle that makes us feel and think and be very Hawaiian. I don't know of any other vehicle that does that except hula, so more and more people are being very accepting of this particular form. We've always done it because it was a gift to us. And we've always accepted it because that's all we know. And we could not just put away this form that people didn't understand. It was our ancestor, and so we continued it. And for many other people, it's not, and they take it on as a new tradition.

Hula was performed before the Europeans came. It was fun thing to do. It was also a very sacred thing to do. So certain hulas were looked at as being very sacred and you only do it at a certain time, for a certain deity on certain moons, at certain ceremonies. Other hulas were done at the birth of a child — a song was composed and the hula was done for that particular event." From Pualani Kanaka'ole Kanahele.

Mary Kawena Pukui, Puluelo Park, Nina Mazwell, Kumu Hula Tiare Clifford of Tiare Ote'a, Ray Fonseca, Nalani Kanaka'ole Zane and Pualani Kanaka'ole Kanahele, Mark Keali'i Ho'omalu, Mapuana DeSilva, Victor and Ku'ulei Punua

1955 - Beatrice Leilani Maka`ipo Nakamura, started the Kodak Hula Show in 1955. Aunty Leilani had danced with famed Bill Aliiloa Lincoln. Every week at Kodak, she made the ti leaf skirts (pa`u la`i) for herself and the other dancers. The Kodak Hula Show was performed often, with lively dance numbers in the hot sun -- it was vital that the fresh skirts be well-made... From her daughter Charlene Kalae Campbell Ti-Leaf Skirt Maker.

1956 August 5, 1956 - The Hula and the word— is a general one meaning "dance"— was part of religious ritual in early days Ancient Hawaiian believed that two gods, ... The hula lost its strictly religious significance and became the opera of old Hawaii, with the dancers acting out history and folklore... From Hawaiian Hula Once Was For Men Only .

1957 - The first plastic Hula Hoop may have been produced and marketed in 1957, but the concept behind the toy is thousands of years old. The ancient Greeks exercised with a hoop made of vines over 3000 years ago, Egyptian children played with them and Native Americans used a similar hoop device for target practice. Hoop toys were popular in Great Britain since the Middle Ages. Typically, they were made of willow, grapevines or grasses... From Classic Toys: The Hula Hoop – Retro Planet

1957 - Ilima Hula Studio was founded in 1957 by Louise Kahili’okalnai Kaleiki, and her Dottie Ortiz on the downstairs lanai of the Kaleiki family home in Papakolea, a Hawaiian homestead community on Oahu. Louise was also a musician and recording artist. She recorded with Aunty Emma Kamaka, Sonny Chillingsworth, Vicky I’i Rodrigues, Pauline Kekahuna, Peter Mendiola, Herbert Hanawahine and Joe Kane, to name a few. Kulaniakea (Lani Girl) Kaleiki-AhLo... From Ilima Hula Studio.

1958 - Although an ancient toy that first existed in Egypt, Greece and Rome, Wham-O Manufacturing introduced the Hula Hoop to Americans in 1958. Since then, there have been many contests and records broken around the world for hula hooping. As far as Gabriel breaking any world records, she's got a ways to go. World records for hula hooping the longest are measured in days, not hours. Gabriel said her hula hooping days are going to be put to rest for a while.

1959 - Hawaii became a US state in 1959. Beginning in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a Native Hawaiian cultural rediscovery began in music, hula, language, and other aspects of the culture. This Hawaiian cultural renaissance was inspired by hula masters or kumu hula, who helped bring back ancient and traditional hula; musicians and vocalists, who brought back traditional music and sang in the Hawaiian language; and political leaders, who sought to protect Hawaii's sacred places and natural resources.

The use of a blood quantum rationale in Hawai‘i to define what constitutes being Hawaiian has been a prominent topic for discussion, particularly since its introduction to the Hawaiian Home Lands Act during Hawaii's status as a US Territory. Under the act, one must have a 50 percent Hawaiian blood quantum to be considered Native Hawaiian. This stipulation has become a critical basis for deciding who is eligible to have access to ‘āina and other benefits. Today, the blood quantum rationale remains a pernicious means by which to determine Hawaiian identity and can only be changed through legislative and congressional measures. ... From Parker • Ka ‘Ike e Ho’omaopopo Ai.
Naomi Kalama, Moodette Keli'iho'omalu-Ka'apana, Kapua Dalire Moe, Aloha Dalire,

Patrick Keaniniokalani Makuakane, Vicky Holt Takamine, Hau'oli Akaka, Kunewa Mook, Moon Kauakahi and Charles Ka'upu, Leina'ala Kalama Heine, Kaleo Trinidad, Maka Herrod, Ali'i Manu O Kai, Darrell Lupenui
1960 - In the early 60s, Louise  Kahili’okalnai Kaleiki was asked by hula master George Naope to teach some of his dancers. He began traveling around the world, as the grand Ambassador of Hula, and could not keep up with the demands of teaching at home in Hawaii. Louise learned her hula from him, as well as hula masters Uncle Henry Pa and Joseph Kahaulelio. There were other kumu that also influenced her, but these were the foundations.

In the late 60s Louise and aunt Luka began teaching Japanese students. Today two of these original students have well established Hula Halau in Japan. Kulaniakea (Lani Girl) Kaleiki-AhLo...From Ilima Hula Studio

August 5, 1960 - Never in history had a Presidential aspirant bespoken the support of such an exotic-looking electorate. At each stop, Hawaiians laid on their traditional gestures of hospitality-corps of hula dancers; men in the costume of ancient island warriors; brigades of guitar players and... From NIXON CAMPAIGNS ON 4 HAWAII ISLES; Urges Support in Freedom … 

1960 - The dream of pure freedom in the South Pacific islands has never died on the mainland; sometimes its more of an ache than a dream. Over time and through the mill of popular culture, the dream has been distilled into two enduring images: the hula dancer and the tiki god.  The hula dance provided an escape in its original culture; the tiki gods that 1960s surfers wore for luck around their necks may have deeper meanings as well, and became the most important symbol of cool adulthood that mainland youngsters could imagine. Lamps, figures, posters, and souvenirs all come together for entertainment and enjoyment... From Hula Dancers and Tiki Gods

1961 October 31, 1961 - Hula is the newest dance craze sweeping the nation— and many bistros badly In need of sweeping— an original dance or a new twist on an ancient one? ... agrees the Twist has a little shim my in it, but also is a combination of the Charleston and the Hula. I've noticed," Vinco adds... From Define The Twist .

1963 April 21, 1963 - Old Hawaiians literally dedicated their lives to the art a hula dancer in the ancient days was a high calling; today it is high pay ... From its early religious devotion the hula expanded into the opera of Hawaii. Dancers and singers combined to relate history and folklore ... From Hula, Hawaii Trademark, Has Changed with Years -

1964 April 5, 1964 - On shore, there will be ancient Hawaiian games and hula dancing by island maidens, the Following closely after Kauai celebration will be a second festival honoring Captain Cook. This will be on the island of Hawaii, one hour by air from Honolulu. From HAWAIIAN ISLANDS SALUTE THEIR DISCOVERER

Concerned that ancient hula was slowly losing its traditional form forever, Hilo business people worked with cultural experts to create the "Merrie Monarch Festival" in 1964. Named for its famous proponent, the Festival is not only a global hula event today, but it has changed the course of modern hula history by being a catalyst for worldwide resurgence. Encouraging ancient, traditional styles, the Festival attracts dancers from around the world to its competition and is considered highly influential in the practice and teaching of hula in the 20th and 21st centuries.

1964 - The Merrie Monarch Festival was founded in 1964 by George Naope. In 1968 the private Merrie Monarch Festival community organization was formed by Dorothy "Auntie Dottie" Thompson who added the competition in 1971.[2] * The Merrie Monarch Festival is a non-profit organization that honors the legacy left by King David Kaläkaua, who inspired the perpetuation of Hawaiian traditions, native language and the arts.

The annual presentation of the Merrie Monarch Festival has led to a renaissance of the Hawaiian culture that is being passed on from generation to generation. With the exception of 2008, the festival week always starts on Easter Sunday and continues with craft fairs, entertainment, and cultural demonstrations during the week. The festival includes art exhibits, craft fairs, demonstrations, performances, a parade that emphasizes the cultures of Hawaii. The three-day hula competition has received worldwide recognition for its historic and cultural significance.

The festival is dedicated to the memory of King David Kaläkaua, the second (and last) elected king of Hawaii, who came to the throne in 1874 and reigned until his death in 1891. He was a patron of the arts, especially music and dance. King Kaläkaua restored many of the nearly extinct cultural traditions of the Hawaiian people. These included myths and legends, and the hula, which had been forbidden — due to the influence of Protestant missionaries — for over 70 years.

Karen Ka`ohulani Aiu, Cy M. Bridges,  T. Kaleika`apuni “Harmony” Brighter, Charlene Kalae Campbell, Tiare Noelani Chang, Momi Cruz-Losano, Rae Fonseca, Kapi`olani Ha`o, Dodie Holmes and John Wai`ale`ale `Aiwohi, Tracie Farias Lopes, Twyla Ululani Mendez.

1967 March 16, 1967 - True Hula Hawaii's true hula wag an ancient religious dance whose purpose was not entertainment but communication of godly principle. The gestures of the dance have secret symbolic meanings...  Each action and movement of the body has a specific meaning. In the hula dance, the hand placement is very important. Different movements imitate a palm tree, plants, animals, and even war. From True Hula .

1969 - In 1969, Dodie Holmes was invited by Maiki Aiu Lake to dance hula with Hula Halau O Maiki.  Dodie performed for several years and also worked as backstage kokua (manager) with this halau, and was later asked to teach hula `auana.  She later began her own halau, and has been teaching hula `auana to women since 1979.  Dodie continues to instruct her dancers using Aunty Maiki`s simple yet elegant style, and upholds her philosophy of incorporating everyday life into the hula.  Dodie formally 'uniki from Pohai Souza in August 2008, and now carries the title of kumu hula.

1970 February 3, 1970 -  The annual Hula Festival, in honor of the Hawaiian islands is held on the first two Sundays in August at Kapiolani Park. Hundreds of dancers, from young to old, participate, and the repertoire extends from ancient and sacred examples of the Hula dance ... From Hawaiian calendar -A renewed interest in hula, both traditional and modern, has emerged since the 1970s.

1972 September 2, 1972 - Hilo, Hawaii ( shied away from learning the hula, but Pat Nixon tried her hand at two ancient Hawaiian sports during her tour of the islands while the President and his Japanese summit partner dealt with matters of state. afraid I can't learn it in one quick lesson," the First Lady... From First Lady Tours Hawaii . Pat Nixon Skips Hula, Tries Hand at Sports .

1975 July 14, 1975 - In the nineteen-fifties, Miss Luahine passed on her art to students at the University of Hawaii, and today her niece is one of several "masters" who teach the ancient hula in workshops to students of ages. "We 'have about 496 'students in the classes, and our men's classes have grown... From Authentic Hula Dancer At Connecticut Festival -

1977 - Hula dances tell stories of the history of ancient Hawaii. Each part of the hula dance has a meaning, and the story expressed last week was about the fire goddess, Pele. According to Ceballos, the chosen dance for last week told a story about Pele's trek down the mountain during a volcanic eruption that occurred on the island in 1977. To this day, the fire goddess is said to reside on the Big Island of Hawaii. Pele is awakened and is “poetically hungry to eat fish,” said... From Corsair - Hula Class Kicks Off SMC's Dance Series

1978 July 7, 1978 - The ancient dance of Hawaii according to Brandt reflected the entire cultural structure of our nation and race The hula was to our ancestors the concert hall and lecture room it was the opera and the theater Chant and dance were the vehicles of history and genealogy... From Statewide Workshops Offer Hula and Chanting Lessons

Pat Namaka Bacon, Malia Craver and Edith McKenzie, Kumu Kea, Donna Leialoha Lim Amina, Uluwehi Guerrero, Pomai Gaui, Etua Lopez, Kukaho'omalu Souza, Wanda Aki, Chinky Mahoe, Greg Lontayao, Ru Morimoto.

1979 June 11, 1979 - Ancient temple sites are being gradually located and rebuilt by some spiritual groups. Young men as well as women are learning the hula .... The episode, noted historian Gavan Daws, was "one of the strangest in the history of the Pacific, or indeed of the world-- people giving up... From Hawaiians Find Religious Roots -

1980 - Cy M. Bridges ~ Polynesian Cultural Center 

Educated at Church College of Hawaii and the University of Hawaii, Cy M. Bridges taught hula for the Hawaii State Foundation on Hawaiian Heritage for ten years and began the Polynesian Cultural Center's hula halau in 1980, continuing today as the Center's Theater Director. He has lectured for the Queen Lili'uokalani Children's Center, Prince Kuhio Hawaiian Civic Club, the Waianae Coast Cultural Society, and the 1994 Mo`oku`auhau Hawaiian Leadership Conference. In 1992 he was the first recipient of the Nipolo Award from Na Leo Mele: The Chanter's Art Foundation, in recognition of his traditional chant performances. He has judged at the Merrie Monarch Festival, and is a respected source for hula, chant and history.

As president of the Native Hawaiian Hospitality Association, Cy Bridges is committed to ensure that the Hawaiian culture is properly presented in the visitor industry, and that the rich and unique Hawaiian values of hospitality are demonstrated at all levels. His expertise in hula and Hawaiian culture is well-respected, and he is consulted by many young kumu hula of the day. 

1983  May 8, 1983 - Gardens Oahu Some ot the hula schools gather to ancient hula commemorating Prince Lot who was King Kamehameha V who to calved the practice ... Historic Site on the island of Hawaii Annual day long offers ancient hula artifact show ant work shops in Hawaiian language and other art skills... From Hawaiian Hula

1983 - Kumu hula of Kuhai Halau O Kawaikapuokalani Pa 'Olapa Kahiko~ one of the most respected kumu hula (hula instructors), haku mele (song writers), performers, and advocates of Hawaiian language music and culture for the past twenty five years releases his first album, Makalapua 'Oe. At an early age he learned hula and healing arts from his maternal grandmother. He continued his studies in hula with Edith Kanaka'ole and Emma DeFries. He has continued to write songs and chants, many of which have been recorded by other artists, and have earned him several coveted Na Hoku Hanohano awards for best original Hawaiian language compositions. These beliefs were reflected in Kawaikapu's 1993 release,

E Ho'omau Ka Ha O Ka Hawai'i. Ka ka o ka Hawai'i - the breath that came from the ancient gods and gave life to Hawai'i. The same breath that is reflected in the Hawaiian language. The same breath that imparts healing into one's soul.

1984 - Twyla Ululani Mendez  had the honor of being named Miss Aloha Hula 1984 at the esteemed Merrie Monarch Hula Festival.  As the daughter of one of Hawaii’s great hula masters and entertainers, Twyla has been nurtured and groomed throughout her life as a dancer, ho'opa'a, & alaka`i.  Her mother, the beloved, late Leilani Sharpe Mendez, lovingly guided her daughter, with the intention of passing on her legacy.  Since the day she was born, hula has been Twyla’s way of life. Throughout their hula history, they have entered numerous competitions and placed with top honors.

With over 30 years of hula experience, she continues to pass on the style and beliefs of her mother’s hula to new haumana (students). Twyla currently teaches on the Leeward side of Oahu and has chosen the halau name “Halau Na Pua A Lei” in honor of her mother.  It means: “The many blossoms of Lei.”  As Twyla says, “It is with pride and dedication, that I carry on my mother’s labor of love.” 

Twyla’s philosophy is to perpetuate the Hawaiian culture, by passing on the knowledge instilled in her by her mother, while keeping the proper protocols and traditions.  “Being given the task of teaching such an important aspect of our culture holds a deep responsibility,” says Twyla.  “Respect for our culture comes with the God-given gift of being born to carry on a legacy.  As my mother would say, ‘Kumu hulas are born, not made.’” Twyla Ululani Mendez...From Halau Na Pua A Lei.

1985 - “He aha kāu pahu hopu?”  What is your goal?...  Is the motto for Halau Hula Ka Lehua Tuahine and Kumu Hula Hiwa Vaughan, whose love for the hula began at age 3. This love has led her to study under the traditions of na Kumu Hula Kimo Alama Keaulana, Kealoha Kalama, Leimomi Ho, Chinky Mahoe and Aunty Mae Loebenstein, culminating in the formal rite of ‘Uniki (graduation) under the auspices of Master Kumu Hula Mae Kamamalu Klein who hails from the Ma`iki Aiu lineage.  While studying under Kumu Hula Chinky Mahoe at age 10, Hiwa won the title of Miss Keiki Hula (1985) and under the tutelage of Master Kumu Hula Mae Ulalia Loebenstein, she won the Merrie Monarch title of Miss Aloha Hula 1995. Hiwa hails from a musical family and has traveled throughout Europe, China and Japan with her parents, Ipolani and Palani Vaughan, sharing Hawaii's rich cultural traditions through song and dance.  Her Hālau is known for it’s firm foundation in footwork and adherence to those hula traditions given to her by the masters under which she has been fortunate to study. 

Hiwa educates her haumāna in all aspects of the hula: Oli, `Olapa, `Auana, `Olelo and hula implement making.  Each student is required to make their own hula implements so that this art, which is such an integral part of the hula, may continue to be practiced.

Hiwa stresses, “We each have a responsibility to continue those traditions passed on by those who have come before us, keeping them intact for the next generation. You do not choose hula; hula chooses you!”. - Kailihiwa “Hiwa” Vaughan-Darval...From Halau Hula Ka Lehua Tuahine

Hula keiki

1986 September 22, 1986 - We have classes on the history and the instruments. Like so many cultural dances , these tell stories too using a complex gestures language. ... "The ancient hula is more stern- it's not as soft as the modern version. The hula has changed a lot over the years, but now the ancient forms are alive."...From Instructor of Exotica Dance Teacher Shakes the Myths Out of Hula -

February 24, 1987 - But when King David Kalakaua, (Hawaii's "Merrie Monarch" who ruled the Hawaiian kingdom from 1874 to 1891) became king in 1874 he revived an interest in the hula. From his family history, he published what is perhaps the genre's most fascinating ... He teaches al most exclusively the "ancient hula," in which accompaniment is limited to chanting and percussion... From Hula dance has had big role in Hawaiian culture.

July 5, 1987 - As a young woman living on the windward side of Oahu (Honolulu's island), Mrs. Emily Kaui  Zuttermeister was trained in the chant and ancient hula ...during their 10-year schooling, students of the Kanaka'ole sisters learn Hawaiiana in every aspect of the dance, including the history and hula rituals...From DANCE; IN QUEST OF HAWAII'S AUTHENTIC HULA - Darrell 'Ihi'ihilauākea Lupenui, Kumu Hula, Musician, died.~ 1951-1987

1988 March 5, 1988 - LEAD: The Hula Hoop is making a comeback -both among grown-ups whose last hoop was probably chewed up by the family dog a quarter-century ago and ... In his book ''The Extraordinary Origins of Everyday Things,'' Charles Panati wrote that hoops made from grapevines existed in ancient Hawaii... From Hula Hoop Is Coming Around Again -

1989 April 1989 - Namakahonuakapiliwale, “the eyes of the turtle on Kapiliwale,” is the name of the hula halau for which Momi Cruz-Losano is kumu hula.  The halau was named by its first kumu hula, Palani Kahala, and was founded on April 1989.  

As a child, Palani remembered his mother, Kapiliwale, looking out their kitchen window at Kahana Bay, saying, “The honu has his eye on me again.”  The honu or sea turtle was the family aumakua (guardian spirit) and turtles nested there.  Palani put that memory in the name of his halau. 

The halau has participated in competitions such as the Queen Lili'uokalani Hula Competition, the King Kalakaua Invitational, The Kamehameha Day competition, the Maui solo competition and the Hula `Oni E competition. They have also performed at places such as the Honolulu Marathon, Waikiki Hotels, Prince Lot Hula Festival, the Hula Bowl, The Molokai Ka Hula Piko, Disneyland,  The Smithsonian Institute and the U. S. Capital Rotunda in Washington, D.C. 

Momi began her hula training informally, to pass time as a Haleiwa canoe paddler waiting for her turn in the canoe.  In 1980 she began five years of training under Pi`ilani Lua Plemer at Waimea Falls Park.  In 1985, she began studying under Palani “Kimona” Kahala.  In 1991, Palani told her that she was ready to become kumu hula.  Before a formal uniki (graduation ceremony) could take place, kumu gave Momi his blessing to open her halau, and, soon after, he passed away. 

When he died, Kapiliwale said, “Keep the name alive, keep his chants and dances alive.”  Momi kept the precious halau name and “We have continued to dance and chant his compositions, along with the traditional dances he taught us.”  Momi Cruz-Losano... From Halau Hula Namakahonuakapiliwale

August 18, 1989 - Hula school: Nestled in the southern Los Angeles community of Carson lies Napuamekealoha Hula Halau, April Kaio's hula school. "I learned hula in Los Angeles, but the ancient hulas come from my family, who are part of a long line of dancers, teachers, chanters, historians and writers"... From DANCE NEWS & NOTES - WASHINGTON TROUPE

1990 April 13, 1990 - Mugge's movies are always beautifully framed and photographed and technically crisp and Kumu Hula is no exception I was particularly taken by recreations of some of the ancient Hula dances which involved men as well as women The rhythmic accompaniment was provided by primitive drums... From Dance Of The Islands Reflects History And Culture -

1990 - EKF is founded in the summer of 1990- The Edith Kanaka‘ole Foundation (EKF) is a cultural-based organization established by the offspring of the late Luka and Edith Kanaka‘ole. Founded on the vibrant traditions and rich cultural heritage of the Kanaka‘ole family, it is the Foundation's mission to heighten indigenous Hawaiian cultural awareness and participation through its educational programs and scholarships. EKF focuses on maintaining and perpetuating the teachings, beliefs, practices, philosophies and traditions of Edith and Luka Kanaka‘ole.

1991 Feb 10, 1991 - They are going to go to where mai tais are being served where they are having a good time said Mrs. Lewis whose 81 year old mother Emily Kaui Zuttermeister was performing that night.

Ka Manokalanipö
By Emily K. Zuttermeister

Moani ke ‘ala ‘o ka laua‘e,
Ka poli kaulana ‘o Makana,
Kilohi i ka nani ‘o Wai‘ale‘ale,
Ka Manokalanipö.

Ho‘ohihi ka mana‘o ke ‘ike aku,
Ka nani ‘o ka pua mokihana
Ke ‘ala ho‘oheno a ka malihini,
Kihapäi pua ua kaulana.

A he nani Kaua‘i i ka mälie,
Kü kilakila i ka pae ‘öpua,
‘Akähi ho‘i au a ‘ike i ka nani,
Ke kau ‘o ka ‘ohua ai i Hä‘upu.

Ua ‘ohu i ka wehi ‘o ka mokihana,
Me ka nani kaulana poina ‘ole,
Ha‘ina ka inoa ua lohe ‘ia,
Ka Manokalanipö.

Wafted is the fragrance of the laua‘e fern,
In the famous bosom (heart) of Makana,
Glancing at the beauty of Wai‘ale‘ale,
Of Chief Manokalanipö.

The mind is entranced when it sees,
The beauty of the mokihana blossom,
An affectionate fragrance to all newcomers,
As likened to the famous periwinkle blossom.

Ah, the beauty of Kaua‘i in the calm
Standing majestically among the cloud banks
When first I saw the beauty
Of the mist that settles at Hä'upu

Adorned and decorated with the mokihana
It's beauty and fame that one never forgets
Declare the name that is always heard
Chief Manokalanipö 


1992 Jun 5, 1992 - Normally the students come to class twice a week but when getting ready for a competition they meet every day They study not only hula dance which has its roots in ancient Hawaiian mythology but also traditional Hawaiian music and the crafts involved in making traditional...From A Hula School Helps Dancers, Teacher Keep in Touch With Hawaiian.

Kumu Hula Tiare Clifford of Tiare Ote'a from San Francisco California died.~ 1945-1992.

1993 Apr 10, 1993 - Ever the optimist he noted that the Hula has been a crossroads throughout history one fork leading to Damascus Syria and the other to Beirut It's the ancient road he said and if there will be peace we will be in the middle of the road...From Nature Gets Assist on Old Claim; Israelis Letting Swampland Return -

1993 - Halau o Kekuhi is rooted in a tradition dating back at least seven generations and is the acknowledged guardian of a treasury of Pele chants and dances. In 1993, Halau o Kekuhi received the National Heritage Fellowship Award from the National Endowment for the Arts, the most prestigious award granted in the country for the traditional arts.

"My family was given a gift, and this gift is the hula that we do. We've preserved this for many generations, teaching this hula to everybody and all of the many generations of people that has come after us".

Pualani Kanaka'ole Kanahele, who together with her sister Nalani Kanaka'ole created and choreographed Holo Mai Pele, trace their lineage to the very beginnings of hula, the Pele clan itself. Their stature in the community, as well as their mana (spiritual power), reside in the fact that their family has maintained the cultural grounding that many Hawaiians today seek to recover. Today both sisters are Kumu Hula (teachers) at Halau o Kekuhi, the Kanaka'ole Family dance and chant organization.

1993 November 19, 1993 -
To acknowledge the 100th anniversary of the January 17, 1893 overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, and to offer an apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii.

Kingdom of Hawaii- The Apology Bill
103d Congress Joint Resolution 19
Nov. 23, 1993

(1) on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the illegal overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893, acknowledges the historical significance of this event which resulted in the suppression of the inherent sovereignty of the Native Hawaiian people;

(2) recognizes and commends efforts of reconciliation initiated by the State of Hawaii and the United Church of Christ with Native Hawaiians;

(3) apologizes to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the people of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893 with the participation of agents and citizens of the United States, and the deprivation of the rights of Native Hawaiians to self-determination;

(4) expresses its commitment to acknowledge the ramifications of the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, in order to provide a proper foundation for reconciliation between the United States and the Native Hawaiian people; and

(5) urges the President of the United States to also acknowledge the ramifications of the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii and to support reconciliation efforts between the United States and the Native Hawaiian people.

1993 - Kawaikapu's releases E HO'OMAU KA HA O KA HAWAI'I

Following the 100th anniversary of the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy under Queen Lili'uokalani, and at a time when Hawaii's people are seeking a direction, it seems an opportune time for this statement, from kumu Kawaikapu, hula and teacher who has devoted his life to Hawai'i:

In order for us to become one people, one as a nation, we must come together as one spirit... the same spirit that guided our ancestors hundreds of years before the arrival of foreigners to our homelands.

We must accept that our existence does come though the Kumulipo, our creation chant, and that, through that creation, we have been given a special authority. Through our language we give and maintain life. Through the pono we maintain the harmony and well -being of all things, both visible and invisible.

Therefore, let us take our past and lay it before us as a foundation and now reach out for our future.

In all my music, these values are reflected. It is the breath that came from the ancient gods that gave life to Hawai'i. It is that same breath that is reflected in our language. It is that same breath that imparts healing into one's soul. Mauli ola kakou - may we live forever. E ho'omau i ka ha o ka Hawai'i. ~ Frank Kawaikapuokalani Hewett

1994 - Aunty Emily Kaui Zuttermeister passed way (March 8, 1909 - March 3, 1994) She was a known kumu and Judge of the Merry Monarch Hula Festival.  Aunty Emily one of Hawaii's last living legends as a master chanter and teacher of ancient Hula.

1994 Apr 2, 1994 - Mrs. Kalama: The chant is very important because the chant tells a story, the history of whatever subject is being spoken of The dance enhances the meaning ... There's been a renaissance of the ancient hula for a number of years now and most especially brought about by the Merry Monarch.... From SHEDDING LIGHT ON THE HULA -

1995 -  Kumu Tiare Noelani Chang started Halau in 1995 in her backyard for the purpose of teaching young girls hula for church performances. Soon after the Halau was established by Uncle Roland Chang and Kumu Hula Tiare Noelani Chang, for the purpose of reaching the community, and teaching the Culture of Hawaii to the youth of Wai`anae. Kumu was Uniki from Aunty Mahilani Poepoe in May of 1985, the same year the Halau was established.

Halau Na Mamo O Ka`ala is located on the Wai`anae Coast of the island of Oahu. The members of Halau range in age from 4 to 65. Halau members are Kane (male) and Wahine (female) and learn both the Kahiko (ancient hula), as well as the 'Auana (modern hula). Hula Protocol is taught and practiced, and the legends and history of the hulas that are learned are taught as a way of further enlightening the haumana (students) as to what they are dancing about. Members of Halau participate in many community activities, and cultural events. The students also have the opportunity to perform at various venues in Hawaii and overseas, in a effort of spreading the culture, and sharing the "aloha" spirit...From Halau Na Mamo O Ka`ala 

1996 Sep 26, 1996 - "I share the legends of the islands, gods and goddesses, the history of the monarchy, the language, the way we use the implements of the ancient hula and much more through talk story," said Kumu Pi'ilani Lua. From CRUISE NOTES -Independence visits five ports on four islands: Oahu, Maui, Kauai and the Big Island.

1997 Jan 12, 1997 - A. The competition you are probably referring to is the Merrie Monarch Festival, an extremely popular annual event, in which about 30 hula halau, or hula troops, gather in Hilo. Two styles of hula are judged: kahiko (ancient hula) and auana ( modern hula)... From Hawaiian Hula Festival -

..."At competitive events like the Merrie Monarch Festival, the dancing follows a strict pattern, for the benefit of the judges. First, there is the entrance, called kaʻi, which is usually chanted by the dancers; next is the dance itself, and finally there is the exit off stage, called ho'i, which is a kind of procession accompanied by chanting or singing." ...From Serge Kahili King- The Hula Experience

1997 -

“My love and gratitude is unlimited to God, my ancestors, and my parents and all close friends for their guidance. Honor the source, perpetuate the genealogy, preserve the breath.”

I would like to thank kumu hula Noelani Tachera in particular for introducing me to the last phrase in this passage. Sam No‘eau Warner has asserted, “The Hawaiian language should be perpetuated because it is part of Hawaiian Heritage—what can help to make Hawaiians whole again as a people. Hawaiians need to learn and know their language, culture, stories, histories, and religion because they interrelate and are integrally linked to one another and to the people. Language—the words people use to describe the environment, thought, emotions—as an expression of world view—is a medium through which people transmit culture and history” From Makanani Parker • Ka ‘Ike e Ho’omaopopo Ai: A JOURNEY TOWARD UNDERSTANDING IDENTITY.

1998 Feb 22, 1998 - The reality, of course, is that hula has an ancient history. For traditional Hawaiians, it's a sacred ritual brought to the Islands by Hi'iaka, the sister of Pele, the volcano goddess. And even as a mostly secular folk dance, it is viewed by practitioners as an authentic Hawaiian cultural heritage...From Hula Holds Sway; Southlanders work to preserve Hawaii's ancient … -

1998 August 1998 - Kumu hula Sallie Yoza credits Charmaine Macdonald, Hokulani Derego, Kimo Alama Keaulana and the late George Holokai with her training, and with instilling a love and respect for hula.  She opened her Halau `O Napuala`ikauika`iu (formally Halau `O Nalei`okamakani) in August 1998.  The halau has been very active in sharing the knowledge of the hula and the culture across the islands, teaching students from age 2 up to gracious senior ladies.  The students learn important Hawaiian values, applicable in all areas of life, as they learn the language and culture through their hula. Sallie Yoza...From Halau O Napuala`ikauika`iu.

1999 Sep 2, 1999 - In its purest form hula is a sacred art that carries with it history custom ceremony and genealogy~ Burbank based hula instructor Kunewa Mook  ... E Hula Mau includes four performance categories There are two group divisions One is devoted to ancient kahiko hula the other features auana/modern hula...From The Dance; True Hawaiian Culture Offered at E Hula Mau Competition… -

2000 - In the Aloha Fest festival that took place in Germany in 2000, Uncle George Naope was the guest of honor. He has been given the prestigious title of "a living treasure" by the president of the U.S.A. He is one of the last carriers of the wisdom of the past and during the festival he wanted to teach an ancient temple dance to the best skilled European hula dancers. We found it an enormous honor, but he simply said " it is of no use if the knowledge dies with me!"... From Hula: Past and Present, Local and Global by Anne-Kristine Tischendorf .

2000 January 5, 2000 - Hawaii's history often is told through hula. There are special chants for weddings, funerals and greetings. Nona Beamer knows many of these chants and dances and has been done for centuries... CHANG: Spectators fill the grounds of the Iolani Palace in Honolulu for this performance of ancient hula... From PROFILE: NONA BEAMER, HAWAIIAN HULA DANCER … -

2000 July 4, 2000 - The Hawaiians had no writing - their history was entirely oral. So for the history of the Hula prior to the arrival of Europeans in Hawaii, we are entirely reliant on descriptions of the first European visitors to Hawaii and on some early accounts written by Hawaiians who learned to write. Source material was scarce. When the missionaries arrived, they were, of course, shocked by the lascivious hula movements, and quickly made it illegal (in public). Fortunately for the hula and for all of us, King Kalakaua (1874-1891) loved the hula and was responsible for a revival that continues today. The annual hula festival on the Big Island - THE MERRY MONARCH FESTIVAL - honors his devotion to this art form... From Bill Taylor, Sacramento, US

2001 Nov 18, 2001 - Lynn Lucas-Langer has put together a traditional Hawaiian dance troupe: Camille Voltz, Ms. Lucas-Langer and Claudine Guardiano.; Ms. Voltz, left, and Ms. Lucas-Langer performing an ancient hula. (Photographs by Rebecca Cooney for The New York Times)... From The Hula, Those Islands to This One -

2002 Aug 4, 2002 - Mrs. Kanahele and Ms. Kanakaole, who are sisters and were seen on ''Great Performances'' on PBS last fall, are composing original chants and combining their choreography of traditional ancient hula, kahiko, with modern dance. The event includes a multimedia exhibition featuring about...From ADVISORY TRAVEL ADVISORY; Hawaiian Dance Groups

2002 - Founded in June of 2002, Halau Na Pua Mai Ka Lani is located in Kalihi on Oahu, Hawai'i. Kumu Kale has danced with many talented kumu hula of Hawai'i, such as Pua Mendiola, Michael and Jamed Dela Cruz, Sonny Ching and Kamalei Sataraka. After over two years of study, he was honored to uniki as an `olapa under Master Kumu Hula Kimo Alama Keaulana. 

As a kumu hula, Kale has led his halau to many accomplishments, winning hula awards in competitions such as King Kamehameha Hula Competition and Hula Oni E on Oahu, as well as Kau I Ka Hano Hula Competition in Las Vegas. In 2006, the halau won the overall division at the Mokihana Festival on Kaua'i. Although the halau focuses mainly on Hawaiian hula, they also honor their Polynesian cousins with dances of New Zealand, Samoa and Tahiti. 

Their Hawaiian performances are a weekly feature at the Kuhio Beach Torch Lighting & Hula Shows, as Kale specialized in staging dynamic, beautiful showcases of hula with his talented dancers. He is never afraid to challenge them to new heights. Every dancer in the halau is taught the saying, "No scared `em, go get `em!" It translates to "Let nothing hide your true feelings -- show how much you love what you do and give it all you got!" That philosophy continues to result in enthusiastic and expressive hula from this creative kumu hula. Kale Pawai... From Halau Na Pua Mai Ka Lani

2003 Aug 5, 2003 -

For Hawaiians, the hula is a way of life. Since ancient times, hula has preserved history through oral tradition and expressed the soul of Hawaiian spirituality. The sacred chants communicated with the gods, recorded genealogy, honored the chiefs, exalted nature and celebrated humanity...

Few American icons are as well known for their popular kitsch as the hula dance. From old Hollywood movies to entertainment for tourists, the hip-swaying girls in grass skirts and colorful lei have long masked an ancient cultural tradition. Now, after years of being shadowed by stereotypes, the hula is experiencing a rebirth that celebrates Hawaiian culture across the American mainland. ... From American Aloha: Hula Beyond Hawai'i

From PBS Broadcast http://www.pbs.org/pov/americanaloha/

2003 Aug 5, 2003 - ... to perpetuate the Hawaiian culture through competitive hula. His creativity with Hula Kahiko has also changed the hula world, along with Makuakane. With the production of Disney's "Lilo and Stitch," Hoomalu continues to discover ways to bring hula into the hearts of people all over the world. Ke Kai O'Uhane, under the direction of Judy Charles, persists to hold their annual luau to entertain the people of Monterey. ... From Large, scale productions by Kumu Patrick Makuakane to the annual luau of Ke Kai O'Uhane, hula is perpetuated no matter what form it comes in. Works Cited "American Aloha: Hula Beyond Hawaii." Writer/Producer/Co-Director Lisette Marie Flanary. Charles, Judy. "

2004 May 7, 2004 - When there was no written language, hula was the way people communicated and preserved the history and genealogy of the islands and their peoples. ... Although ancient hula dance (hula kahiko) was formal, incorporating ceremonies and altars, modern hula (hula 'auana) is less formal... From Hula and Hoopla for Asian Pacific Month -

2004 December 2004 -  "The dancers of Halau Mohala ‘Ilima seem to float onstage, their feet hardly touching the floor. If stomachs are filled with butterflies, it doesn’t show. The lines are straight. Faces glow with anticipation. Mapu’s entrance chant moves into the call to be ready: E ho‘omakaukau. The responding voices declare their story. Thirty dancers move as one. The telling of the ancient chant begins.

"E tu i ta hoe uli /E tohi i ta pale tai: Seize the steering paddle and press it to the side of your canoe, resist the onslaught of tide and current, steer free, steer clear." This advice, from the 200-year-old chant ‘Ulei Pahu, has been handed down unchanged from kumu to kumu. According to noted scholar Mary Kawena Püku`i, who learned ‘Ulei Pahu from Keahi Luahine, the chant is a prophecy given by a Kaua‘i priest who foresaw the coming of Captain James Cook and the drastic changes that would follow. Pukui’s daughter, Pat Namaka Bacon, learned it from her mother and passed it on to de Silva, to be taught exactly as it was handed down and presented "when the time was right." For this chant—days before Merrie Monarch 2004—that time is now."... From Lessons of a Kumu by Lynn Cook. Hana Hou! The magazine of Hawaiian Airlines.

2005 Mar 30, 2005 - One teacher held a kahiko (ancient hula) workshop, open to anyone who wanted to attend. At the end of that, there were dancers who didn't belong to a halau where they could dance hula, but who wanted to learn. Nahokuokalani Gaspang... From Living, Breathing Things Hawaiian -

2005 May, 9 2005 Hula in the Modern World: What is Hula today? In the documentary film, "American Aloha: Hula beyond Hawaii," Dr. Amy K Stillman of the University of Michigan states that,

"the hula tradition is far more than just dance." Hula has evolved from the temple priests of ancient Hawaii, to the days of King David Kalakaua, and to the infamous stage of the Merrie Monarch Hula Competition that takes place in Hawaii once a year in April. Hula has pioneered its way through the changing and modernization of the years. It is danced and taught in many styles, old and new, all over the world." 

From Kumu (master hula teacher) Patrick Makuakane

2005 June 15, 2005 - "Hula has the ability to touch laymen as well as connoisseurs. It's appealing not only to the eye but all the senses. The movements are graceful, the dances are structured in a way that enhances the sense of balance, harmony and dynamic. It seems the hula can be characterized as a universal language." ...From Hula: Past and Present, Local and Global by Anne-Kristine Tischendorf .
2005 July 11, 2005 - "An estimated 400,000 people in Japan are involved with hula. Traveling across the Pacific to be at the heart of the Hawaiian culture they emulate and embrace, these Japanese are drawn to the rhythm and sway of the dance and have spread the hula throughout their country while enhancing a cultural exchange that is also good for businesses.

They also want to learn about Hawaiian culture, history, protocol, hula dress and more. People are learning the Hawaiian language in Japan, taking up the 'ukulele, and singing Hawaiian songs and chants, said kumu hula Frank Kawaikapuokalani Hewett. Halau are everywhere and many are affiliated with local teachers." ...From Japan hooked on hula and 'ukulele ~   By Eloise Aguiar - Honolulu Advertiser. com

2005 - Michael Pili Pang is the Kumu Hula of Hālau Hula Ka No'eau, a hula school located in Waimea on the Big Island of Hawaii and in downtown Honolulu. Prior to being appointed by Mayor Mufi Hannemann as the as Executive Director of the Mayor's Office of Culture and the Arts, in the spring of 2005, Michael was the founder of Hawai'i Arts Ensemble, the first professional Hawaiian touring company.  Finding his career as an arts administrator, he marketed full-length hula concerts to theaters and universities throughout the United States, Canada and Asia.  Through this effort, he carved out a touring schedule each year, touring as many as nine weeks a year. Michael's hula performances and artistic achievements has awarded him a Rockefeller Foundation Multi-purpose Grant, consecutive Atherton Family Grants, McInerny Foundation Grants, a three year Capacity Building Award from the Hawai'i Community Foundation, a State Foundation on Culture and the Arts Award and a first time National Endowment for the Arts award to create and choreograph a new dance piece in the traditional hula styling.  The hālau has also been awarded a number of competition awards from the King Kamehameha Hula and Chant Competition and World Invitational Hula Conference.  Pili Pang was the first Kumu Hula to complete a Master's of Fine Arts Degree at the University of Hawai'i; focusing his thesis studies on hula. Michael Pili Pang. ...From Halau Hula Ka No'eau

 2006  March 8, 2006 "According to Mary Kawena Püku`i - Hula 'Auana, Informal Hula without ceremony or offering, contrasted with the hula kuahu; modern hula. 'Auana is defined as - to wander, drift, ramble, go from place to place, to stray morally or mentally. A hula 'auana is a hula that is a contemporary style as opposed to a hula kahiko (a traditional style hula)." Currently hula 'auana is a style used with hapa haole music including signing, guitars, pianos, bass, and 'ukulele as the accompaniment for hula 'auana. Singing for hula 'auana can be in either Hawaiian, English or both. ...From Haumana Kako’o Merrie Monarch~ Hula Piko Forum :: Hula `Auana

2006 May 5, 2006 - There are many different levels in a halau and kumu decide for themselves whether they choose to utilize any or all of them. The three basic levels in a halau are: \'olapa ho\'opa\'a kumu; when one starts to learn the hula they enter the halau as an \'olapa learning the physical aspects of hula, body movements, hula steps and motions, etc. When the kumu determines it is time, they graduate to the next level of ho\'opa\'a. At this stage the move on to the intellectual part of hula. Learning to chant and accompany all the dances you learned as an \'olapa, learning the meaning behind all of the chants, etc. Then finally as a kumu you learn the spirituality of hula. Learning to conduct ceremonies pertaining to hula and of course everything else pertaining to hula. As far as alaka\'i, the kumu decide whether they choose to utilize alaka\'i in their halau. Alaka\'i are primarily there to assist the kumu as a student leader. In larger halau with many alaka\'i, I have also known of a position called the po\'opua\'a. They are the head dancer or head alaka\'i of all alaka\'i... From KauhiLONOhonua, Pa\'u O Hi\'iaka Hula Piko Forum :: Hula `Auana 

2006  Sep 7, 2006 - Such old Hawaiian families, each with its own style of hula, incorporate the work in which they have specialized for generations, like taro farming or the catching and propagation of fish. The Kanaka'oles' mission has been to “guard the fire,” and so they sing and dance in honor of Pele... From Traditional Hawaiian Dancing Amid a High-Tech Spectacle - New York … -
2007 - Joan Nauoeemilikaaokalikookalanialoha Sniffen Lindsey's roots reach back to Kohala on the island of Hawai'i where she lived with her Hawaiian grandparents during early childhood. They taught her of things Hawaiian and nurtured her desire to learn hula. When her grandfather died, she came to live with her Korean grandparents on Oahu.  She began her hula training with her aunt Caroline Peters Tuck at the age of seventeen. She also studied under Lena Guerrero and Lokalia Montgomery. She was a performing dancer in the line with Hawaii's famed "Songbird," Lena Machado. 

The Joan S. Lindsey Hula Studio has entered countless hula competitions, always delighting the judges and audience with her beautiful traditional hula style, and winning many awards.  Ironically, as Aunty Joan explains, "The competition isn't important. I will never pick just the best to perform or compete, because that's not part of learning. That's not the Hawaiian way. The Hawaiian way that I know is that the one who needs the most love and the most time, you need to give them that time -- you come from a Hawaiian family and that's how it is." 

While teaching hula primarily to keiki and kupuna, Joan also coaches young women for specific competitions, and teaches foreign groups who come to Hawai'i to learn or broaden their hula experience.  She is also part of the kupuna program, teaching Hawaiian culture in Hawaii's school system. 

Aunty Joan has taught hula in the Pearl City area for decades and continues to inspire and teach new generations of children a love of hula and Hawaiian culture.  In fact, she has taught several generations in many of the same families, and is now teaching the great-grandchildren of original students. Joan S. Lindsey ...From Joan S. Lindsey Hula Studio

2007 June, 19 2007 - There are many types of oli and there are many techniques to oli. Like `Aukai had mentioned the \'i\'i. \'I\'i is that vibrato sound that one makes while chanting; that vibrating effect. That is a technique that one might use during an oli, sort of an artistic flair to enhance the oli. Then as Ikaika had mentioned the oli kepakepa, that would be considered a type of oli, being a fast-paced sort of talking oli. There are many other types of oli and techniques. Another technique is ha\'i. Ha\'i is where one makes it appear to almost crack their voice, a really high pitched scratch. Here are a few other types of oli: Oli Kawele: This style of oli is done with an emphasis placed on certain words or things that the person might want to emphasize and done similar to the kepakepa style. Spoken very quickly but again, done with some emphasis. Commonly found in Oli Ku\'auhau (Genealogical chants). Oli Ho\'ae\'ae: An emphatic style of chanting, usually done with chants of love or high praise. Done rather slow with a melodic voice pattern done in 2-4 line parts. Oli Kanaenae: This is a style of chanting which is done either as a eulogy or praise. Done often in a higher pitch. If done as a eulogy, it will sound mournful and often the chanter will cry."...From Kainoa Types of Oli 19/6/2007 Forum :: Hula `Auana 

2008 Apr 6, 2008 - Kapalama's Halau Ke Kia'i O Hula and kumu Kapi'olani Ha'o also turned in a fine kane performance in Friday's kahiko, or ancient, hula competition. Before they took the stage last night to dance the kolohe "Lei Onona," they honored ailing hula director Uncle George Naope with a chant... From Halau wins overall by single point -

2008 - Kapi'olani Ha`o started learning hula at a very young age at Palama Settlement on Oahu.  She continued her training with Tiare Clifford and then Ulalia Berman, a graduate of Aunty Maiki Aiu, at Kalihi Palama Culture & Arts and later, Aunty Mary Cash.  Then she began to dance for the most influential kumu hula in her life, her uncle Master Kumu Hula George Naope.  Uncle George graduated Kapi'olani with her Kumu Palapala and she was given the responsibility of sharing what she had been taught.  However, he reminded her that “A`ohe pau ka `ike I ka halau ho`okahi” – “Wisdom is not found in just one school.”  To this day, Kapi'olani considers herself a student of hula and continues learning.

 She has studied further with Frank Kawaikapuokalani Hewett and Aunty Hu`I Park. After Aunty Hu`I passed on, Kapi'olani started her own halau in 1992, Halau Ke Kia`i A'o Hula, “Guardians of the Dance,” named by her Uncle George Naope.  A family-based halau, Halau Ke Kia'i features Kapi`olani`s sisters, sons, nieces, nephews and grandchildren, as well as opening their doors to others.

They have entered and won in many competitions, including the World Invitational Hula Festival, the Kalakaua hula competition in Kona, Kau I Ka Hano in Las Vegas, and the Merrie Monarch Hula Festival. Kapi`olani Ha`o...From Halau Ke Kia`i A`o Hula.

2008 - Earl Pamai Tenn formed Halau Ho`okipa Aloha for Honolulu International Airport, performing at various airport events. The goal of the program is to promote aloha through hula. He and his dancers have performed at various Windward Community College events. He has been to Mexico City on 20 different occasions, as co-founder and advisor to Ka Leo O Na Hula, A.C., a hula teachers association which has just completed their 18th annual Ka Leo O Na Hula Seminario / Festival in Mexico in October 2008.  In addition, he acts as advisor to Ka Leo O Na Hula Puebla, sponsored by Universidad Madero and Ka Leo O Na Hula Guadalajara, both entering their 3rd Annual Seminario / Festival in October 2009.

Pamai is also a hula judge, having evaluated the Ia `Oe E Ka La Hula Festival and Ka Leo O Na Hula Festival. Pamai`s hula foundation is broad. He credits the following teachers: Nathan Napoka, Henry Moikehaokahiki Pa, Maddy Kaululehuaohaili Lam, Rose Kapulani Joshua, Morrnah Nalamaku Simeona, Ruby Kawena Johnson.  He continues teaching hula in Hawaii as kumu hula of Ka Pa Hula Manu, carrying on the traditions of his kumu, Henry Pa. 

Pamai says, "My life's journey has been evolving. With reference to hula, my teachers have taught me with aloha (love); they never charged me a fee. Napoka taught me the physical aspects of fundamentals, Uncle Henry the various choreography of na hula both older and new, verifying the fundamentals. Maddy taught me to be creative, understanding the senses. Aunty Rose's gift was the hula auana, and Morrnah`s was the spiritual aspect. Ruby Kawena Johnson's expertise is the Hawaiian culture, and she taught me about this." Pamai concludes, "Hula master Uncle Henry Pa would say he had just scratched the surface -- and so have I." 

Pamai`s teaching emphasizes the basics first. The stronger your foundation, the higher you can build. Pamai advises,

"Know yourself through hula; hula can be a tool to self discovery. And always remember that one must do the dance with aloha." - Earl Pamai Tenn...From Ka Pa Hula Manu / Halau Ho'okipa Aloha.

John Keola Lake, died.~ 1937-2008

2009 Nov 7, 2009 - “Because we had no written language, everything was preserved through the chants : our history, our values, the stories. ... “They started what we call the Hawaiian renaissance, and because of Uncle George and those other people, ancient hula has been redeemed from that Hollywood-type... From George Na'ope, 81, was a master of Hawaii's sacred hula dance

2009 - Two stories are relayed in this article, one written and the other painted. Both speak about origins, movements across distance, the beauty of growth, and the remembrance of where we come from. For me, learning ‘ōlelo Hawai‘i has provided an important key to understanding who I am. Without our indigenous tongue we lose our sense of being, our sense of personal and collective identity, and our mo‘olelo. In a report on the social and economic conditions of Native Hawaiians, Larry L Kimura underscored the link between language and identity:

“Language demonstrates the uniqueness of a people” and is “inextricably tied to the definition and identity of the Hawaiian people”

(1983, 173). Conversely, renowned Māori filmmaker Merata Mita noted the outcome of not knowing one’s Native language: “If to choose a language is to choose a world, then being denied a language is being denied a world” (1989, 310). With those resounding words, I state my position: I have chosen to not be denied. From: Ka ‘Ike e Ho‘omaopopo Ai: A Journey toward Understanding Identity.  Parker, M. 2009. Ka ‘Ike e Ho‘omaopopo Ai: A Journey toward Understanding Identity. In The Space Between: Negotiating Culture, Place, and Identity in the Pacific, edited by A. Marata Tamaira, 55-61. Occasional Paper Series 44. Honolulu, Hawai‘i: Center for Pacific Islands Studies, School of Pacific and Asian Studies, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa

"Elua". Cousins Lauren Mau and Emily White

"Hula is truly a gift"

As King David Kalakaua said,

"Hula is the language of the heart, and the heart beat of the Hawaiian people"  

Hula is loved by many all over the world. Hula sees no ethnic boundaries and is a gift for any one that begins the journey of learning all that Hula is...

"Hula is a physical, emotional and spiritual experience. It is filled with great depth. You are always growing,  always learning because the more you learn, the more you realize there is so much more to learn.  My role in Hula has shifted, I am now the teacher with the kuleana (responsibility) to pass on the traditions and mana'o I have learned from my Kumus. I have been teaching since 1998 and the learning continues..." From kumu hula Ualani Smith.

2009 - The hula of Ka Pa Hula O Kauanoe O Wa'ahila is based on a simple philosophy -- that it is not just a dance done once a week, but a lifestyle.  "The disciplines, values and ethics we teach and learn in halau hula are things that our haumana (students) are able to use in everyday life," Maelia Loebenstein Carter says:  "We believe that all our young children are beautiful inside and out, and that they can accomplish anything their hearts desire.  Our focus is not on competition, but on forming and developing the total person, and in maintaining a positive attitude in all that we do."
Maelia sums it up this way: 

"It is important for our haumana to learn that if they do not let their spirit dance, then it is not truly the art of hula.  Hula must come from their na'au (gut) and radiate outward.   It was my grandmother's firm belief that 'dance is the showcase of your soul!'... and so, we dance!"

2010 - Karen Ka`ohulani Aiu ~ From Halau Hawai`i  

Karen grew up in a hula family.  She was trained in hula by her mother, hula master Maiki Aiu, who weaved hula into their very lives. 

The hula she learned is gentle, expressed with grace; proper, expressed through clean grooming for appropriateness & presentation; uncomplicated, expressed with simple balance & understanding.

Karen is a proud kumu hula graduate of Maiki Aiu`s papa lehua (class).  Her family and hula lineage are from her mother, her mother's aunts, Lei DeFries, Tutu Helen, Tutu Kaualoku, as well as Lokalia Montgomery, Pua Ha`aheo, Kawena Püku`i and more. 

She perpetuates her mother's teachings out of love and not duty.  The basic tenets are: 

(1) Hula is the art of Hawaiian dance expressing all that we see, hear, feel, taste, touch and smell -- Hula is life. 

(2) The hula book.  Aunty Maiki invented the practice of writing down hula motions and notes on the dance.

(3) Kindness and inclusiveness. 

Karen teaches in Japan and Hawai'i.  The Hawai'i halau has entered and won awards in the Hapa-Haole Hula and Music Festival, the World Invitational Hula Competition, and the Hula Ho`olauna Hula Festival.  They have participated in several Halau Hawai'i Japan conferences, charity and Hawaiian Music and Hula concerts in Japan. Karen has been a judge for Keiki Hula Competition and a few other competitions.  She is also the co-founder of the Maiki Aiu Foundation and the co-producer of recordings under the label of Ke`alohi; Ululani Records and Ululani Media. 

“My mother's most treasured gifts she left me as her daughter is the love for the hula and to do the job of the kumu hula with kindness and understanding -- that is my inheritance.”

2010 Feb 16, 2010 - Honolulu Advertiser- Hawaii: Honolulu- The Hawaii Tourism Authority is devoting $600000 to 27 programs seeking to perpetuate and honor Native Hawaiian culture. The awards were announced Tuesday. The programs will highlight the historical significance of Pearl Harbor to Native Hawaiians, honor classic Hawaiian culture at a two-day festival, and preserve the rare ancient hula ohe, or nose flute hula. Other programs include a hula competition...From $600K awarded for Native Hawaiian programs - Hawaii Gossip -

March 17, 2010 - From the inimitable shared energy that can make 20 dancers’ voices ring out like one, down to the unseen knots that secure each hand-woven lei, hula is not only a form of dance but a physical manifestation of the Hawaiian language.

Long before foreigners adopted a portion of the English alphabet to express Hawaiian on the page, Native Hawaiians wrote many of their stories in dance. Centuries later now, the language of hula is a sacred link to Hawaiian culture.

“It’s not that hula can express more than words,” says kumu hula Māpuana de Silva, who founded the hālau Mōhala ‘Ilima more than three decades ago. “Hula can only express more than the words if you don’t understand the language. If you do understand the language, it adds to the words. It puts the story into present day. It becomes visual and not just intellectual. You can actually feel the emotion of a writer from the past, today.”

From ‘Ōlelo kuhi kino ` Body Language by Adrienne LaFrance March 17/2010 ~ Honolulu Weekly

March 19, 2010 ... Dorothy "Aunty Dottie" Thompson, co-founder of the renowned Merrie Monarch Hula Festival died. She was 88.

March 20, 2010 Dorothy "Aunty Dottie" Thompson, Merrie Monarch Hula Festival co-founder, passes at 88 Hawaiian Culture Examiner By Leilehua Yuen

Dorothy "Aunty Dottie" Thompson, co-founder of the renowned Merrie Monarch Hula Festival died last night. She was 88.

Aunty Dottie Thompson is credited with saving the festival from extinction when it fell on hard times in 1968. In 1964, the festival events included a King Kalakaua beard look-alike contest, a barbershop quartet contest, a relay race, a re-creation of King Kalakaua's coronation, and a Holoku Ball, according to the official festival website.

Under Dottie Thompson's direction, the festival added a hula competition and grew into Hawaii's signature showcase for hula. Thompson was executive director of the festival continuously since 1964 and always insisted that it remain in Hilo and be accessible to local people, keeping ticket prices low, some events free, and always focused on hula. 

The festival, held in the Edith Kanaka'ole Tennis Stadium, celebrates its 47th anniversary this year.

March 21, 2010 - Kumu Hula Rae Kahikilaulani Fonseca died this afternoon of a heart attack. He was 56. Fonseca was haumana to the late Uncle George Lanakilakeikiahialii Naope, and spent many years involved with the Merrie Monarch Festival Naope helped to create, both helping behind the scenes and training his halau, Halau Hula o Kahikilaulani, for the competition. 

Comments in Hawaiian-interest social networking sites reflect shock at the loss within 24 hours of two significant members of the hula community. Dorothy "Aunty Dottie" Thompson died Friday night. Thompson was a co-founder of the Merrie Monarch Festival.

Kumu Rae Kahiki Fonseca dedicated his life to living and preserving the Hawaiian culture.  In 1980, he established Halau Hula 'O Kahikilaulani in Hilo where he continued to teach hula until today.  He was given the name Kahikilaulani by his own kumu hula, the late hula master George Naope.  "Laulani" was added to his Hawaiian name "Kahiki."  In essence, "Kahikilaulani" (the staff of heaven) soon became "Halau Hula 'O Kahikilaulani".  Rae carried on the traditions of his hula lineage through his teaching and, after years of rigorous training, graduated his first 'uniki class in 2007.  His Halau has participated in and won numerous awards in the Merrie Monarch Festival.  Kumu Rae passed away suddenly while teaching hula at Lanikuhonua on Oahu, leaving a rich legacy of hula that will live on. ...From Kumu Hula Rae Kahikilaulani Fonseca Passes ~  Hawaiian Culture Examiner By Leilehua Yuen

2010 April 9-10, 2010 - The men of Ke Kai O Kahiki repeated as overall winners at the 2010 Merrie Monarch Festival hula competition.

We are truly grateful to KITV for helping us share the beauty of hula for the past 29 years," says Luana Kawelu, President of the Merrie Monarch Festival, “and we now look forward to building new relationships with KFVE to perpetuate Hawaiian culture and the festival as both continue to grow and thrive."

Mrs. Kawelu's mother, Dorothy "Aunty Dottie" Thompson, the festival's Executive Director, took over the leadership of the festival in the fall of 1968. Three years later, with the help and guidance of respected cultural and hula experts, Aunty Dottie initiated the hula competition, which has steadily gained in popularity over the years. With its emphasis on hula, chant, Hawaiian language, and arts, the Merrie Monarch Festival has strived to contribute to the public's growing awareness of Hawaiian culture. She finally said:

"By perpetuating our traditional hula and chants, we honor the Merrie Monarch himself, King David Kaläkaua, who was instrumental in reviving the hula during his reign, E Ola Mau Kona Hoʻoilina. His legacy lives on."

2010 June 11, 2010 - Sharon Pillsbury, 56, has, for many years, found time to hula. She is is the director and instructor for Kalispell’s local hula school, which has a long Hawaiian name that translates into Hula School of the Peaceful, Heavenly, Flowing Waters. “You can dance hula your entire life, childhood through old age,” Pillsbury said. “At family celebrations, people just get up and dance. Family, history, the aloha spirit — they’re all tied up in hula.”

Kalispell’s Margie Henderson, 46, will be part of the show, as will her daughter Anna, 10. She said people often react with surprise after hearing of her passion for the art form.

“I’m a middle-aged white woman, born and raised in Montana, overweight, and I love to dance hula,” she said. “I know that’s crazy.”  After eight years of dancing, her ties to the dance at the heart of Hawaiian culture are deep. “It’s a very ancient dance, very spiritual, and it somehow calms and feeds the soul,” she said.

But the real draw for Henderson is the sense of family that springs from hula. “The other part of why I love it is the community that happens with the women I dance and share those experiences with,” Henderson said. “They’ve become my best friends and a huge part of my life.”

The local hula school, which practices weekly at the Dance Art Center in Kalispell, receives support and guidance from a school in Sacramento. Hula master Kumu Juni Kalahikiola Romuar, who will be part of the Saturday program, provides all the choreography and cultural instruction to the students through Pillsbury.

“We really are very thankful for the school in California,” Pillsbury said.

 “They really do this for us out of the love of spreading hula. It’s a gift and a responsibility they have given us.”

Pillsbury is an instructor but not a “kumu,” a teaching title that has to be bestowed. She is not allowed to create dances for the school; they must be handed down through a kumu.

With an age range from 6 to 60, there currently are 23 students in the school; Pillsbury said around 25 has been the average. The school began with Sherry Maier, a native Hawaiian who opened the program as Paradise Productions 17 years ago. She passed it on to Macy Massey, who later moved and left it in Pillsbury’s care about four years ago.

Students at the school not only learn to hula dance, they also study Hawaiian language and culture, and every two years a Hawaiian trip is planned. Besides the annual show, members of the school dance for public events such as Relay for Life and farmers markets, in nursing homes and in schools. Pillsbury said that even though Northwest Montana might seem like an odd place for a hula school, it actually is a good fit.

“Hula is the language of the heart, and a lot of us feel that connection here,” she said. “We live in a majestic beautiful environment that hula reflects, and the aloha spirit reflects Montana friendliness."

 2010 July 2, 2010 - Hula the Hawaiian way of Learning..."As a little girl, everyone danced hula. I went with my cousins to a Kumu who taught us, and we practiced, and loved it. When we got older we danced at parties, for guests, and at family gatherings. The kupuna often did the kolohe hula, and made us laugh. Hula kept everyone young at heart, and we were able to share our culture with others through hula. It was common to have someone get up to dance at a luau when there was a song that spoke to their heart. Everyone clapped, and laughed and thoroughly enjoyed it. When I was a teen, I danced with a group that performed in Las Vegas.

 It always made me feel like I took a part of Hawaii with me, and made my Hawaiian-ness even more precious. I never danced in competition, but there were rules and protocol that needed to be followed, even when just dancing for family. We were disciplined, we listened and didn't talk.

That is the Hawaiian way of learning, you watched and then you followed. You don't ask questions, you do it. Hula taught us how to have poise, how to be well groomed, how to be graceful, and proud of our heritage. It didn't matter if our hula sisters were Hawaiian or not, we were one ohana.

There is one occasion where a woman is expected to dance the hula, and that is when she gets married. The bride dances for her husband, and the love always shines in her eyes, and is echoed in his eyes, which are only for her. When I remarried, I danced a hula for my husband. I had not danced in many years, but it was a tradition I wanted to keep. Afterward my son Brandon, who dances the hula, Tahitian, Maori, and fire-knife, said to me, " Mom, I didn't know you danced!" Well Hello...! Guess where you got your dancing abilities from?!

"When I see a beautiful hula dancer, it takes me back to the times when I was young and so unaware of the impact that hula had on others. Such beauty and grace, such softness and Aloha that is sent out to the ones who receive it, and they do receive it. Aloha, straight from the heart. Dance to the rhythm of our ancestors, 'E Komo mai!' You are welcome, held in the arms of Heaven."  - From Kumu Karen Leialoha Carroll

Hula is much more than just sacred dance... It is the living history of the Hawaiian people, telling their myths and legends, stories and values. It is an expression of history, religion and the human spirit of Aloha

Jairo Kealoha Cardona

© 2011 Jairo Kealoha Cardona

Hula Sources:

Ancient Hula History Sources: http://www.hawaiihistory.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=ig.page&CategoryID=288

Hula: Past and Present, Local and Global by Anne-Kristine-Tischendorf http://www.huna.org/html/a-khula.html

http://www.huna.org/html/hulaexperience.html- The Hula Experience by Serge Kahili King, PH.D

http://www.huna.org/html/hula_th.html - Hula: The Soul of Hawaii by Tracey Lakainapali

https://www.lomilomi.com.au/magic-of-the-hula.php - Magic of the Hula by Tracey Lakainapali




Lessons of the Kumu by Lynn Cook







http://users.isp.com/hulalei11/index.html ~ Hula Halau Pomaika'ikeolahouoka'lani

Hawaiian Music and Hula Archives http://www.huapala.org/#A1


http://www.huladancehq.com/hula-dance-steps-in-depth.html Hula dance steps

http://www.kpohana.com/basichulasteps.html - Basic hula steps


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Er0cltTD50 Merrie Monarch Festival 2010 KE KAI O KAHIKI

Other Hula References:

Hula, Historical Perspectives (Pacific Anthropological Records, No 30) by Dorothy B. Barrere, Marion Kelly, and Mary K. Püku`i

The Story of Hula By Carla Golembe

Sacred Hula: The Historical Hula Ala'Apapa (Bishop Museum Bulletins in Anthropology) By Amy K Stillman

Hawaiian Hula Dance- Hula History- Aloha Magazine: http://www.alohamagazine.com/en/hula.htm

Kimura, Larry L

Unwritten Literature of Hawaii: The Sacred Songs of the Hula (Forgotten Books) By Nathaniel Bright Emerson (1839 - 1915)

The spirit of hula : photos and stories from around the world by Berinobis, Floyd Shari 'Iolani - 2004. Bess press, inc. Honolulu, Hi.

1983 The Hawaiian Language. In Native Hawaiians Study Commission Report. US

Department of the Interior, 173–224. Honolulu: Office of Hawaiian Affairs. Mita, Merata

1989 The Politics of Culture. In Ki Te Whei-Ao, Ki Te Ao-Marama, edited by Mihaka Te Ringa Mangu and Marama Laurenson, 310–314. Wellington: Te Ringa Mangu Ltd.

Hula: Hawaiian Proverbs and Inspirational Quotes Celebrating Hula in Hawaii by Mary Kawena Pukui (Hardcover - Nov. 1, 2003)

1986 Decolonizing the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature. London: J Currey. Warner, Sam L No‘eau

1999 Kuleana: The Right, Responsibility, and Authority of Indigenous Peoples to Speak and Make Decisions for Themselves in Language and Cultural Revitalization. Anthropology and Education Quarterly 30 (1): 68–93. By Wendt, Albert

1987 Novelists and Historians: The Art of Remembering. In Class and Culture in the South Pacific, edited by Antony Hooper, 79–91. Auckland: Centre for Pacific Studies, University of Auckland; Suva:

Haumana Hula Handbook By  Mahealani Uchiyama

The Art of Hula - Volume I Laka By Ron Laes

The Art of Hula By Allan Seiden

Mele Hula Workbook By Mahealani Uchiyama

How to Hula for Body, Mind and Spirit By Patricia Lei Anderson Murray

Hula Pahu Hawaiian Drum Dances Vol I - Ha'a and Hula Pahu Sacred Movements By Adrienne L. Kaeppler

The Spirit of Hula: Photos and Stories from Around the World By by Floyd Berinobis, Shari Iolani Floyd Berinobis, George Holokai, and Kawaikapuokalani Hewett

Hula I Ka La: Dance in the Sun By Kim Taylor Reece

Classic Hula [Audio CD] By Darlene Ahuna

Ka 'Uniki 'Ana o ka Hula - Fukuoka, 2008 - Kumu Hula Leialoha Lim-Amina By Randy Jay Braun Photography

The Art of Hula Dancing by Suzanne and Majka, Connie Aumack

American Aloha: Hula Beyond Hawai'i By Dr. Amy Ku`uleialoha Stillman PBS Article
Na Mele Hula: A Collection of Hula Chants By by Nona Beamer (Paperback - Oct. 1987)

Kumulipo: http://gohawaii.about.com/cs/culture/a/kumulipo.htm

Urban Shaman By Serge Kahili King, PhD

1971 Hawaiian Dictionary: Hawaiian-English, By Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Samuel H Elbert

Hula Photos:

Courtesy of Eddie Crisostomo @ Edz Photography Design Specialist http://www.modelmayhem.com/Edz808

Hula Music:

Hawaiian Music and Hula Archives http://www.huapala.org/

Ancient Hula Hawaiian Style:


DVD History of the Sons of Hawai‘i By Eddie & Myrna Kamae

Hula Organizations:

Information about Hula associations and other hula organizations in Hawaii and around the world

Hula Preservation Society
An organization dedicated to preserving the history of the hula by building a library of hula literature, video recordings of traditional Hawaiian Hula, and audio recordings by senior hula masters.
Hula Association of the Midwest U.S.
Kumu Hula Association of Northern California
Kumu Hula Association of Southern California

Hula Halau Directory:

Hula companies in Hawaii and in other parts of the world

Halau Hula in the United States
Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington DC, Washington State West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

International Hula Halau
Information about hula halau in Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, the Dominican Republic, Finland, Tahiti in French Polynesia, Germany, Guam, Indonesia, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Philippines, Spain, and Taiwan


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